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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
neuron
~nerve cell
~basic functional unit
~receives/transmits electrochemical nerve impulses
axons
~carry impulses away from the cell body
dendrites
~receives impulses
myelin sheath
~cover that protects the entire neuron
~lubricates, insulator
neurotransmitters
~help conduct impulses across a synapse and into the next neuron
central nervous system
~brain/spinal cord
~protected by the skull, vertebrae, cerebrospinal fluid, dura mater, pia mater, arachnoid membrane
cerebrum
~largest part of the brain
~houses the nerve center that controls motor and sensory functions
frontal lobe
~site of personality, memory, reasoning, concentration, motor control of speech
parietal lobe
~site of sensation, integration of sensory information, and spatial relationships
temporal lobe
~site of hearing, speech, memory, emotion
occipital lobe
~site of vision and involuntary eye movements
thalamus
~receives input 4m all of the sense except olfaction (smell), analyzes that input, and transmits that info 2 other parts of the brain
hypothalamus
~beneath thalamus
~controls sleep and wakefulness, temperature, respiration, blood pressure, sexual arousal, fluid balance, and emotional response
cerebellum
~base of the brain
~coordinates muscle movements, maintains balance and controls posture
brain stem
~provides connection btwn spinal cord & brain
~midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
midbrain
~mediates pupillary reflexes and eye movements
~reflex center for III/IV cranial nerves
pons
~helps regulate respiration
~reflex for V-VIII cranial nerves
~mediates chewing, tasting, saliva secretion, equilibrium
medulla oblongata
~contains the vomiting, vasomotor, respiratory, cardiac centers
spinal cord
~functions as a two-way conductor pathway btwn brain stem and peripheral nervous system
~consists of gray and white matter
gray matter
~made up of cell bodies, dendrites, and axons
white matter
~contains ascending (sensory) and descending (motor) tracts
~send signals up to the brain and motor signals out to the muscles
peripheral nervous system
~delivers messages 4m spinal cord to outlying areas of the body
~31 pairs of spinal nerves
~12 pairs of cranial nerves
spinal nerves
~carry mixed (motor and sensory) impulses to and 4m the spinal cord
cranial nerves
~olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, acoustic, glossopharyngeal, vagus, spinal accensory, hypoglossal
autonomic nervous system
~subdivision of PNS
~controls involuntary body functions (digestion, resp, cardio)
~sympathetic nervous system
~parasympathetic nervous system
sympathetic nervous system
~coordinates activities that handle stress (fight-or-flight response)
parasympathetic nervous system
~conserves and restores energy
conjunctivae
~thin, transparent mucous membranes that line the lids
external eye structures
~eyelids, conjunctivae, lacrimal apparatuses, extraocular muscles, eyeball
lacrimal apparatuses
~lubricate and protect the cornea and conjunctivae by producing and absorbing tears
extraocular muscles
~hold the eyes parallel to create binocular vision
internal eye structures
~iris, cornea, pupil, lens, anterior chamber, posterior chamber, retina, retinal cones, retinal rods, optic nerve
iris
~thin, circular, pigmented muscular structure that gives color to the eye
~provides space btwn the cornea and lens in2 anterior and posterior chambers
cornea
~a smooth, transparent tissue that works w/sclera to give the eye its shape
pupil
~the circular aperature in the iris that changes size as the iris adapts to the amt of light entering the eye
lens
~biconvex, avascular, colorless, and transparent structure suspended behind the iris by the ciliary zonulae
anterior chamber
~the space btwn the iris and cornea that's filled w/aqueous humor
aqueous humor
~watery, clear fluid that moistens and nourishes the lens and cornea
posterior chamber
~space behind the lens contain vitreous humor
vitreous humor
~clear, gelatinous fluid
retina
a thin, semitransparent layer of nerve tissue that lines the eye wall
retinal cones
~visual cell segments responsible for visual activity and color discrimination
retinal rods
~visual cell segments responsible for peripheral vision under decreased light conditions
optic nerve
~a nerve located at the posterior portion of the eye that transmits visual impulses 4m the retina to the brain
ears
~three sections: external, middle, inner
external ear
~pinna (auricle) and external auditory canal
~separated 4m middle ear by tympanic membrane
middle ear
~tympanum
~air-filled cavity in the temporal bone
~contains 3 small bones (malleus, incus, stapes)
inner ear
~labyrinth
~cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals
electroencephalogram
~records elec activity of the brain 4 seizures
~PRE:no anticonvulsants, antianxiety, sedatives, antidepressants
~no caffeine 2days b4
~no hair spray
~POST:cleanse hair w/acetone
computed tomography scan (CT)
~cross-sectional images of layers of the brain
~detect neoplasm, brain abcess, subdural hematoma
~w/or w/out contrast dye
~sedation
~allergies 2 iodine
~informed consent
~check 4 stiff neck & back pain
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
~magnetic/radio waves to create image
~no pacemakers, surg/otho hardware, shrapnel
~remove jewelry/metal objects
~sedatives
cerebral angiogram/arteriogram
~radiopaque dye w/xrays to exam cerebral arteries
~PRE:allergies to iodine
~informed consent
~POST:V/S
~check 4 bleeding
~assess distal pulses (fem art)
~assess neuro status
~check color/temp of limbs
~maintain extended pos
~fluids
lumbar punctures (LP)
~MD uses needle to collect CSF from (L2-S1) subarachnoid space
~allows measurement of CSF pressure & injec of radiopaque dye
~PRE:allergies to iodine
~informed consent
~empty bowel/bladder
~knee-chest/fetal pos
~C/I IICP
~POST:neuro status
~supine 6-12hrs
~analgesics
~check 4 bleeding/CSF
~fluids
~assess movement of extremities/pulse
cerebrospinal fluid analysis
~lab test of CSF
~exam for blood, WBCs, immunoglobulins, bacteria, protein, glucose, electrolytes
~send to lab immed
electromyography (EMG)
~measures elec activity of muscle @ rest & during contraction
~pt must flex/relax muscles
~analgesics
myelography
~inject of radiopaque dye by LP, fluoroscopy, allows visualization of subarachnoid space, spinal cord, vertebrae
~PRE:allergies to iodine
~informed consent
~POST:neuro status
~flat in bed
~check 4 bleeding
~fluids
skull xrays
~radiographic pic of head/neck bones
positron emission tomography (PET)
~injection of radioisotope
~visualization of brain's O2 uptake, blood flow, glucose metab
~informed consent
~no alcohol, tobacco, caffeine
~no meds
~check 4 bleeding
blood chemistry test
~analyze pt's blood
~doc meds
~check 4 bleeding
hematologic study
~analyze a blood sample for WBC, RBC, ESR, HCT, HGB, platelets
~doc meds
~check 4 bleeding
coagulation study
~lab test of blood sample that analyzes PT, INR, PTT
~doc med
~check 4 bleeding
visual acuity test
~measures clarity of vision using a letter chart (Snellen's) 20' 4m pt
~bring eyeglass/contact lens
extraocular eye muscle testing
~check 4 parallel alignment of eyes, muscle strength, cranial nerve function
visual field examination
~tests degree of peripheral vision of eyes
tonometry test
~measures intraocular fluid pressure using air-puff tonometer
auditory acuity test
~general exam of pt's hearing
otoscopic examination
~otoscope to visualize tympanic membrane
audiometry
~measures pt's degree of deafness using pure-tone or speech methods
~need to ear earphones
~asked to signal when tone is heard in soundproof rm
myelogram
~contrast medium/air injected in2 spinal subarachnoid space by spinal inject
~PRE:NPO 4hrs
~POST:12-24hrs supine 4 oil based dye
~HOB 15-30deg 4 water based dye
~V/S
~fluids
~mon 4 stiff neck/back pain
brain scan
~detect neoplasm, brain abcess, subdural hematoma
~uses IV radioisotopes
~check 4 allergies
glasgow coma scale
~normal 8-15
~eye opens when name called
~touch & eye opens
~best motor response
acetycholine
~neurotransmitter
~released @ ends of nerve fibers
tensilon test
~done by MD
~injection of edrophonium chloride used to diagnosis myasthenia gravis (MG)
~pos: if weak pt suddenly has incr strength