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88 Cards in this Set

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neuro assess
mental status
~LOC
~orientation (person, place, time)
~appearance
~affect
~knowledge/vocabulary
~judgement/abstraction
~mood
~language/speech
increased intracranial pressure
etio
~incr in amt of central nervous sys tissue, size of cerebroblood vessels, or amt of CSF
increased intracranial pressure
cause
~head injury
~CVA (stroke)
~brain tumor
increased intracranial pressure
S/S
~lethargic
~drowsy
~stupor
~HA doesnt go away
~projectile N/V
~pupils dilated/unequal/nonreactive
~cheynnestokes
~widening pulse pressure
~slow pulse
~bradycardic
hyperthermia
etio
~body temp >105F
~d/t infec, cerebral edema, heat
~reduces O2, heat damages brain
hyperthermia
NI
~hypothermia blanket (protect skin)
~V/S
~I&O
~check 4 skin changes
~prev shivering
~check temp q4hrs
epilepsy seizure
etio
~abnormal/excessive discharge of neurons in brain
epilepsy seizure
grand mal
~aura
~epileptic cry (high pitch)
~gen tonic-clonic movements
~loss of consciousness
~postictal effect
~>5mins
epilepsy seizure
petit mal
~small absence of seizures
~abrupt cessation of activity w/brief loss of consciousness w/drooling
~minor movement (twitching eye/lips)
~5-10secs
~common in children
epilepsy seizure
jacksonian
~spreading of seizure activity in an orderly fashion 2 adjacent motor areas
~hand suddenly spazes, then arm, then torso
epilepsy seizure
focal motor seizures
~motor symptoms w/out jacksonian march
~whole arm spazes, not one by one
epilepsy seizure
status epilepticus
~continuous sz w/out interruption
~med emerg
~>3mins leads 2 brain damage
~meds (valium, dilantin)
epilepsy seizure
NI
~airway
~safety
~no restraints
~turn head 2 side
~charting
epilepsy seizure
drug therapy
~antiseizures
~diazepam (Valium)
~dilantin (Phenytoin)
~cartemazepin (Tegretol/Garbitrol)
~phenobarbitol (Luminal)
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
etio
~sudden loss of brain function resulting 4m a disruption of blood supply to part of the brain causing temp/perm dysfunction
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
risk factors
~hypertension
~smoking
~obesity
~hypercholerolemia
~diabetes mellitus
~peripheral vascular dz
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
S/S - middle cerebral artery
~hemiparesis
~hemiplegia
~hemianopsia
~aphasia
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
S/S - internal carotid
~hemiplegia
~aphagia
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
S/S - R hemispheric lesion
~sensory/visual probs
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
S/S - L hemispheric lesion
~language/speech probs
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
NI
~airway
~neuro checks
~V/S
~rehab (ROM 2 prev contractures)
~est communication
~move/place all items on unaffected side
transient ischemic attacks (TIA)
etio
~temp episode of neuro dysnfunction lasting only a few mins/sec d/t blood flow 2 brain
~warning sign of stroke, esp in 1st 4wks after TIA
transient ischemic attacks (TIA)
causes
~artherosclerosis
~microemboli 4 plaque
transient ischemic attacks (TIA)
S/S
~sudden loss of visual function
~loss of sensory function
~loss of motor function
transient ischemic attacks (TIA)
surgical carotid endartectomy
~removal of carotid artery
~POST:no flexing neck
~assess swallowing reflex
~assess tongue
~move arm/shoulder
~smile
transient ischemic attacks (TIA)
anticoag therapy
~dipyridamole (Persantine)
~aspirin
~prev more plaque/emboli
~ticlid
spinal cord injuries
etio
~part/comp disruption of nerve tracts/neurons resulting in paralysis, sensory loss, altered activity in autonomic nervous system dysfunction
spinal cord injuries
causes
~trauma
~infec
~tumors
spinal cord injuries
cervical
~quadriplegia
~resp probs
~paralysis of 4 limbs
~loss of bladder/bowel
spinal cord injuries
thoracic
~paraplegia
~loss of bladder/bowel
~paralysis of lower limbs/major control of body trunk
spinal cord injuries
lumbar
~paralysis of lower extremities (flaccid)
~loss of bladder/bowel
spinal cord injuries
NI
~immobilization
~spinal board
~halo traction
~foster or stryker frame
~meds
spinal cord injuries
drug therapy
~antiinflam (steroids)
~decadron
~dexamethozome
~antibiotics
head injury
epidural hematoma
~damage 2 arteries in brain
~bleeding in2 space btwn skull/dura
~middle meningeal art
~loss of consciousness, lucid intervals
~deterioration
~burr holes
~constant bleeding
head injury
subdural hematoma
~venous
~bleeding below dura
~acute, subacute, chronic
~craniotomy
head injury
basilar skull fx
~bleeding nose/ears
~otorrhea/rhinorrhea
~racoon's sign
~battle's sign
~watch 4 incr UO
multiple sclerosis
etio
~chronic progressive dz of CNS categ by small patches of demylination of brain/spinal cord
~autoimmune dz
multiple sclerosis
S/S
~young adults 20-40
~nystagmus
~blurred vision
~dyplopia
~slurred speech
~ataxic gait
multiple sclerosis
NI
~no cure
~encourage normal life as poss
~daily excercise
~prev injury
multiple sclerosis
meds
~immunosuppressants
~baclofen (Lioresal)
parkinson's dz
etio
~progressive neuro dz affecting brain centers that are responsible 4 control/regulating movement
parkinson's dz
S/S
~bradykinesia
~resting tremor
~rigidity
~expressionless fixed gaze
~drooling
~slurred speech
~constipation
~shuffling propulsive gait
parkinson's dz
meds
~levodopa (dopar)
~carbidopa/levodopa (sinemet)
~bromocriptine (parlodel)
~benzotropine mesylate (congentin)
~trihexylphenidyl (artane)
~anantidine HCL (symmetrel)
parkinson's dz
NI
~exercise/speech therapy
~nutrition
~prev constipation (high fiber)
~safety precautions
~allows pts lots of time
myasthenia gravis
etio
dz affecting neuromuscular transmission of vol muscles of the body
myasthenia gravis
S/S
~extreme muscular weakness
~incr w/fatigue, relieved by rest
~ptosis
~dysphagia
~mask-like facial expression
myasthenia gravis
meds
~anticholinesterase (enzymes)
~pyridiastigmine (mestinon)
~ambenonium (mytelase)
~neostigmine (prostigmine)
myasthenia gravis
NI
~thymectomy
~tensilon test
meniere's disease
etio
~endolymphatic fluid vibrates & goes 2 cochlea hair; translates in2 words
~losing hair cells; w/o hair cells, lose hearing
~dilation of endolymphatic system causing degeneration of vestibular & cochlear hair cells
~excess fluid leads 2 imbalance
~60yr+
meniere's disease
S/S
~vertigo
~tinitus
~sensory neuro loss
~pressure in ear
meniere's disease
NI
~bed rest
~furstenberg diet
~keep rm dark when photophobia present
~stop smoking
meniere's disease
meds
~vasodilator
~nicotinic acid
~tolazone HCL (priscoline)
~diuretics, antihistamines
~sedatives: valium
~antevert (meclizine)
~dramamine
tic douloureux
etio
~trigeminal neuralgia
~neuro dz specifically affecting V cranial nv
tic douloureux
S/S
~excruciating pain along trigeminal nerves
~50yrs+
tic douloureux
meds
~antiepileptic drugs
~tegretal
~dilantin
tic douloureux
NI
~alcohol injection in2 nerve branches
~no extreme hot/cold 2 face
~no hot liquids/foods
~use straw
~pain management
tic douloureux
surg interv
~percutaneous radiofrequency trigeminal gagliolysis (no sensation)
~microvascular decompression of trigeminal nerve
bell's palsy
etio
~facial paralysis
~PNS
~lower motorneuro lesion of VII cranial nerve
bell's palsy
S/S
~facial paralysis w/eye
~painful sensation in face
~recovery 3-5wks
bell's palsy
NI
~steroids
~analgesia
~protect involved eye
~chew on unaffected side
~facial exercise
guillian-barre syndrome
etio
~acquired acute inflam dz of peripheral nerves categ by ascending reversible paralysis
~feet to head
~recovery takes few mo-1yr
guillian-barre syndrome
S/S
~dz/infec (resp/GI)
~tingling of legs
~upp extrem, trunk facial muscles (lead to resp distress)
guillian-barre syndrome
NI
~tx s/s
~mon resp
~phy therapy
~ocu therapy
detached retina
etio
~occurs when sensory retina separate 4m pigment epithelium of retina
detached retina
S/S
~sudden flashes of light
~curtain over field of vision
detached retina
NI
~immed bedrest w/both eyes bandaged
~no coughing, sneezing, straining
~scleral buckling
cataract
etio
~lens of eye becomes opaque
cataract
S/S
~gradual visual loss
~see blurry/hazzy vision
cataract
intraocular lens impant
~surg removal of lens under local anesthesia
~PRE:myotic dx
~mydriatics
~POST:operative eye covered
~HOB elev
~dont lie on operative side
~report severe pain
~no bending @ waist
~no lifting
~no sneezing/coughing
~no vomiting
glaucoma
etio
~incr intraoccular pressure
~may lead 2 atrophy of the optic nerve & blindness
glaucoma
S/S - acute
~closed angle
~severe pain in/around eye
~in light, see rainbow
~cloudy/blurred vision
~NV
glaucoma
S/S - chronic
~open angle
~tired feeling around eye
~see halos around lights
~loss peripheral vision
glaucoma
meds
~myotics
~pilocarpine hydrochloride (pilocar)
~diamox
~mannitol (ositol) IV
~isosorbid (ismolitic)
glaucoma
surg
~local anesthetic used
~iridenclesis
~theramosclerectomy
~traveculectomy
glaucoma
NI
~controllable, no curable
~safety when ambulating
~avoid constipation (IIOP strain; high fiber)
~med alert bracelet
babinski reflex
~toes curl after stroking heel
~normal for <2yr
increased intracranial pressure
NI
~icp >15mm hg; notify MD
increased intracranial pressure
teaching
~no lifting
~no coughing
~no sneezing
~no suctioning
increased intracranial pressure
meds
~no narcotics, sedatives, versed, morphine(can mask LOC)
~tylenol
~osmotic diuretics (decr pressure in brain)
~mannitol (osmotrol)
~decadron (dexamethozone)
~pulls fluid out of brain 2 decr swelling
epilepsy
cause
~head injury
~HA
~ER
~prophylactics
surgical carotid endarectomy
etio
~surgical procedure 2 remove plaque in the lining of the carotid artery
surgical carotid endarectomy
NI
~POST: no flexing neck
~assess swallowing reflex
~assess tongue (hypoglossal)
~move arm/shoulder (spinal accessory)
~smile (facial)
surgical carotid endarectomy
meds
~dipyridamole (persantine)
~aspirin
~ticlid
~prev more plaque/emboli
spinal cord injuries
ANS, CNS, PNS
~ANS: no conscious control
~HB, GI, bowel/bladder
~CNS: brain & spinal cord; irreversible
~PNS: extremities; inj/damaged possibly reversible d/t regeneration
halo traction
~screwed 2 bones/shoulders
laminectomy
~surgical removal of part of the post arch of a vertebra to provide access to the spinal canal
~NI: mon circulatory sys
~mon loss of sensation in lower extremities
~mon dressing 4 CSF/bleeding
miotics
~meds that constrict pupils
~FOR: glaucoma
mydratics
~meds that dilate pupils
~FOR: cataracts