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10 Cards in this Set

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What is weakness or delay in muscle relaxation after contraction?
Myotonia
Produce paralysis or weakness (paresis) of large muscles, increased muscle tone (spasticity) and hyperactive reflexes 1-3 weeks post-lesion
Corticospinal tract lesion
Cause severe weakness and early atrophy of individual muscle groups, fasciculations, flaccidity and loss of stretch reflexes, but no pathological reflexes...
Anterior horn lesions (lower motor neurons)
Cause weakness in muscles supplied by the nerves, atrophy, flaccidity and loss of stretch reflex...
Peripheral motor neurons lesion
Result in fatiguability, variability of weakness during the day, minimal or no atrophy, no change in muscle tone or reflexes, and no sensory changes
Diseases of the NMJ
Causes proximal muscle weakness with late atrophy, no changes in reflexes except late in the disease, and no sensory changes.
Myopathy
What are some reasons the cold could be affecting the man worse?
Cold temperature may affect these mutants to a greater extent- to slow inactivation of the channel (and the muscle). The cold may also be affecting Na+ pumps; the changes in Na+ concentration will have a greater effect on the mutant channels.
Why give bicarbonate to a hyperkalemic parient?
Bicarbonate causes a shift in K+ from outside to in (K+ exchanges for intracellular H+)
Why give glucose and insulin to a hyperkalemic parient?
Glucose and insulin shift K+ into cells due to osmotic considerations.
Why give someone with this problem a loop or thiazide diurectic?
Patients who take thiazide or loop diuretics will often have hypokalemia secondary to renal potassium excretion. If extracellular K+ is decreased, this would minimize the prolonged depolarization caused by the Na+ channel mutants (more driving force for K+).