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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
brain and the spinal chord
spinal nerves and the cranial nerves,
-sumpathetic ganglia
-basal Ganglia
-adrenal medulla
-sympathetic NS
-parasympathetic NS
what gene is responsible for ventrilization? where is it secreted from?
SHH, secreted by notochord
what is the function of the dorsal horn?
it does the sensory, it is located dorsally,
what is another name of dorsal column?
dorsal column is called fasiclui cuneatus and gracillis, carries major sensory info to the brain
gracilis> located medially, does the sensory info to the lower body
cuneatus> located laterally on the spinal chord does sensory to the upper body
what is white matter made up of?
oligodendrocytes, they produce myellin w/c give it the whote color
what is ventricular (blood supply )of the sp. chord?
it is called the central canal
what is grey matter?
its made up of the axon tracks
the cell body for the sensory neurons, it is called pseudounipolar
why is it that PNS can regenerate and CNS cannot?
PNS doesn't have recpetor for NOGO, but oligodendrocytes bind NOGO in the CNS and inhibit it's function
what are the spinal nerves capable of
they can carry sensory info to the periphery
what does the brain stem consist of?
Pons, medulla and midbrain
what makes up the fore brain?
telecephalon and diencephalon
what does diencephalon consist of?
it consists of thalamus, hypothlamus and the retina
what is the most caudal part of the brain?
medulla, coming from the sp.chord, it is the first structure encountered
whar originates from telencephalon?
cereberal hemispheres and basa ganglia
w/c ventricle is located at the level of diencephalon?
what is corpus collosum?
it is white matter that connects the hemipspheres
what ventricles are located below corpus collosum
lateral ventricles
how many lobes are there in the brain
there are 4 lobes, frontal (most rostral), parietal. temporal, occipital (caudal)
what does central sulcus eperate
it seperates frontal lobe from parietal
precentral gyrus
motor cortex, upper motor neurons
post central gyrus
somato sensory cortex
knocking out what type of neurons would cause pralysis as opposed to weakness and why?
knocking out lower MN would cause paralysis b/c they synapse right on to the muscles,but the uppen motor neurons synapse on to the lower MN and that would cuase only weakness b/c your lower MN would function prorperly
what's another name for sylvian fissure
lateral sulcus
where is visual cortex located
occipital lobe
whare is the learning and memory take place
temporal lobe along w/auditory cortex
what are of the brain is responsible for language
where is cingulate gyrus located
it is located in the limbic region
what area of the brain is resposnible for emotions
limbic region
where is calcarine sulcus located
it is located inside the visual cortex, inside occipital lobe
what are the divisions of the temporal lobe
3 parts
Sup. temporal gyrus, ITG, MTG
what region is responsible for face recognition?
Inferior temporal gyrus of temporal lobe
w/c region of the brain is responsible for auditry cortex
what are the divisions of fronatl lobes
inferior, superior, and middle fronatal gyrae
what are the different parts of the Inferior frontal gyrus?
it is divided into pars trinangularis, opercularis, and orbitalis
where is the Broca's area located? if severed?
it is located in pars trinagularis of fronatl lobe, if severed it cause broca'a phagia= these ppl cannot form complete sentences
what part of the brain is involved w/behavioral problem?
preforntal lobe, located under pars orbitalis
what is caused by right parietal lobe damage?
a neglect of the left side, these ppl won't dress on the left side, they can look at the left side
the central sulcus is seen better on the medial side or the lateral side?
lateral view shows more of the central sulcus
what does para central lobule do?
it is responsible for the motor sensory function of the hands and feet
what structure is involved w/Parkinson's disease
substantia nigra
what is the differnce b/t optic trac, nerve and chiam
chiasms is in the center, optic n. receives axon for each eye separately. optic trac receives it from the both eyes, so if severed optic trac would cause the most damage
where is the olfactory nerve located
it is located in the nasal epithelia and not in the nasal tract or bulb, this is often mistaken
if there was a hemorrhage in midbrain, would the person eyes be dilated?
yes, b/c extra blood will push on the Uncus, w/c will push on the occulomotor nerve
what is rostral, optic n or tract?
optic nerve
if we can see the medulla and the pons, w/c view is being observed?
we would be observing the ventral view
w/c view shows the mamallary bodies
what would see with the dorsal view
caliculi and the pineal body
what structures does the cerebellum attaches with
sup, middle, and inferior cerebellar peduncle
what are peduncles used for
they are fiber bundles that connect axons from cerebellum to brain stem and back
cranial nerves are what NS
w/c cranial nerve are sensory
w/c cranial nerve are motor
w/c are both
w/c make parasympathetic NS
what are the names
1olfactor, smell
3occulomotor,constriction of the pupils
4trochlear, eye muscles superior oblique
5trigeminal, sensory sensation from face and mouth, muscles of mastication
6abducens, eye muscle. lateral rectus
7facial, expression facial muscles, taste from anterior tongue, lacrimal and salivary glands
8vetibulocochlear nerve, auditory
9glossopharyngeal, sensation from pharynx, taste posterior tongue, carotid baroreceptors, BP
10 vagus, sensation from pharynx, vocal chords,aortic barorecpetors
11spinal accessory nerve, shoulder and neck m
12hypoglossal n, tongue movements