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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
On what day does the embryonic ectoderm begine to thicken? What does this form?
day 18
neural plate
What is the location of the neural plate? What is the location of the notochord?
plate-dorsal midline
chord-ventral to plate
What is the origin of the neural plate? notochord?

What is induction?
when mesodermal cells send a chemical signal to the overlying ectoderm cells to begin differentiation into the neural plate
What causes development of the neural folds? Are the folds at the medial or lateral margin?
epithelial cells in the neural plate proliferate and elongate
Eventually the neural plate cells pinch off to form the _____.
neural tube
Where is the neural tube located?
underneath the ectoderm of the embryo
The apposition of th eneural folds to become the neural tube occurs first where?
middle of embryo and then extends rostral and caudal
What are the rostral and caudal openings at each end of the developing neural tube called?
What occurs when the caudal neuropore fails to close but neural tissue continues to develop normally?
spina bifida
What is necessary to induce the formation of the vertebral arches from overlying meoderm?
a closed neural tube
What is meningoceles? meningomyloceles?
protrusion of the meninges
protrusion of meninges and meningomyloceles
What is anencephaly?
failure of rostral neuropore closure and tissue differentiation
What are the cells that originate lateral to the neural plate are pinched off and migrate between the ectoderm and the neural tube calles?
neural crest cells
The neural crest cells form all gleal cells within which sensory ganglia?
Where do epithelial cells proliferate?
both in neural plate and after the neural plate cells have formed the neural tube
What are most of the neuroepithelial cells connected to?
both the external and internal limiting membrane
What happens to the connections of the epithelial cell during the M phase?
Thje nuclei of dividing cells move toward the internal limiting membrane and lose their connection to the external limiting membrane
Name the ciliated cells that line the lumen of the neural tube.
Ependymal cells
What type of cell provides the framework for cells to migrate?
radial cells
Where does most division of cells occur?
at ventricular surface
The process of cell division along the internal limiting membrane and then daughter cells moving back toward the external limiting membrane is called what?
interkinetic nuclear migration
Describe a neurons 'birthday'.
throughout dev groups of neuroepithelial cells that are destined to become neurons devide one last time and then leave mitotic cycle forever, this last division is the neuron's 'birthday'
Neurons that have similar 'birthday's' have what else in common?
they are part of the same structure
Where do neuroepithelial cells go to once they stop dividing?
proliferative zone
Name the three distinct layers of the neural tube. (in to out) Which layer gets thicker as cells differentiate?

mantle thickens
How many vesicles are present at 4 weeks? Name them.
How many compartments are present at 5-6 weeks?
What flexural changes occur at day 26? Is it on the ventral or dorsal surface?
mesencephalic and cervical flexures
on the ventral surface
What flexural changes occur between days 35-50? Is it on the ventral or dorsal surface?
dorsal surface
What does the telencephalon give rise to?
cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and hippocampus

also lateral ventricle
What does the diencephalon give rise to?
epithalamus (pineal gland), thalmus, hypothalamus

third ventricle
What does the mesencephalon form?

cerebral aqueduct
What does the metencephalon form?
cerebellum, pons

fourth ventricle
What does the myelencephalon form?

fourth ventricle
What travels the length of the neural tube (developing spinal cord) and separates the dorsal and ventral regions?
sulcus limitans
The dorsal or ____ plate neurons become specialized to process _____ information.
afferent or incoming sensory
The ventral or _____ plate neurons become specialized to process _____ information.
efferent or output
What does the spinal cord develop from?
neural tube
Cranial nerve nuclei are prominent occupants of the brainstem, beginning in the ____.
Which neurons receive incoming information about touch, temperature of the head and neck?
GSA-General Somatic Afferent
Which neurons receive incoming information from the special senses: visceral? What are the visceral senses?
SVA-Special Visceral Afferent
taste and olfaction
What are the neurons that innervate the extraocular muscles and the muscles of the tongue?
GSE-General Somatic Efferent
What are the neurons the receive incoming information about visceral organs?
What are the neurons that innervate visceral smooth muscle and glands?
What are the neurons that innervate striated muscle derived from the branchial areches?
What are the neurons that receive incomin information from the special senses: somatic? What are the somatic sences?
vision, hearing, balance
What are the two distinct structural parts of the medulla? (referring to its relationship to th efourth ventricle)
caudal closed, and rostral open
What are the dorsal alar plate derivatives in the closed medulla?
cuneate and gracile nuclei
What are the cuneate and gracile nucli responsible for?
receive afferent somatosensory input from the spinal nerve ganglia via the dorsal columns
In the basal region of the medulla, what type of motor fibers are seen?
corticospinal motor fibers (pyramids)
In the open medulla what happens to the alar plates?
They are displaced lateraly b/c of the enlargement of the neural canal to become the fourth ventricle
In the medulla where are afferent (alar) derivatives located vs basal ones?
Name the prominent alar plate derivatives in the pons. (5)
pontine nuclei, cochlear and vestibular nuclei, trigeminal sensory nucleus, and cerebellar relay nuclei
Name the prominent basal plate derivatives in the pons. (4)
superior salivatory nucleus, motor nucleus of the facial nerve, abducens nucleus, and neurons in the reticular formation
What is the cerebellum formed from?
lateral region of the alar plate called the rhombic lips
Describe the folding of the rhombic lips when forming the cerebellum? What does the folding cover?
enlarge and fold medially to cover the pons
What is unique about the cerebellar cortex?
it has two proliferative zones
What does the internal germinal layer of the cerebellum produce?
neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei, Purkinje cells and cells that form the molecular layer
How is the second proliferative zone of the cerebellum formed? What is its name?
established when neurons migrate out from the ventricular zone to form a new zone of the periphery of the cerebellum
-external germinal layer
What does the external germinal layer give rise to?
granule cell layer
What is the name of the alar plate derivative in the midbrain?
What does the tectum include?
superior and inferior colliculi
What is the name of the basal plate derivatives of the midbrain?
What does the tegmentum include?
trochlear and oculomotor cranial nerve nuclei, substantia nigra and the red nucleus
The mesencephalon has a root, the _____, and a floor, the _____.

What does the mesencephalon (midbrain) house?
many cranial nerve nuclei
What do neurons use to guide their migration?
chemical cues, contact with other neurons or gleal cells and other physical aspects
What has been shown to be important in making correct connection, especially insensory systems?
electrical activity in afferent fibers
Describe the formation of the cortex.
it is built from the inside out, the outermost layer is formed last
Is apoptosis a passive process?