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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Somatic Nervous System
Afferent and Efferent
Voluntary Muscles
Convey Sensory Info to CNS
Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
Involuntary Muscles
Conserves Energy, Maintains Homeostasis
Spinal Cord - Location
Base of skull to first lumbar vertebra
Spinal Cord - Root Differentiation
Dorsal - Sensory
Ventral - Motor
Spinal Cord - Gray vs. White Matter
Gray matter is surrounded by white matter
Gray Matter = Cell Bodies
White Matter = Axons
Dorsal Horn = Gray
Ventral Horn = White
Number of Spinal Nerves
31 Pairs (sensory and motor)
Brain Stem Contains
Medulla, Pons, Midbrain
Brain Stem Function
Regulation of parasympathetic reflexes
Network of Neurons in Brainstem
Reticular Formation - Receives sensory information and influences arousal level of organism
Crucial for basic functions of arousal - sleepful and wakefulness
Medulla Location and Function
-Most caudal of brain stem
-Participates in respiration and blood pressure
-Participates in control of neck and facial muscles
Pons Location and contents
Rostral to medulla
Contains - Pontine Nuclei, Dorsal nuclei
Pontine Nuclei
Relay information from cerebral cortex to cerebellum
Dorsal Nuclei (Pons)
Respiration, sleep and taste
Midbrain Functions
Most Raustral of Brain Stem
Important for connections between subcortical structures and cerebral cortex
Components of auditory and visual systems
Control of extra-ocular eye muscles
Inferior Colliculus
Auditory System
Superior Colliculus
Visual System - Top of midbrain
Cerebellum functions
Balance, coordination of head and eye movements, motor learning
Involved in language and cognition
Cerebellum Input
Receives somatosensory input from spinal cord
Motor information from cortex
Input from Vestibular Organs
*Relatively few neuronal types although the most neurons
*No direct connection to spinal cord
Diencephalon Contains
Thalamus, Hypothalamus
Thalamus Functions
Essential in relay of sensory information
Important for gating of sensory information
Integrates motor information from basal ganglia and cerebellum and projects to cortex
Influence on levels of attention and consciousness
Hypothalamus Functions
Regulates homeostasis and reproduction
Regulates hormonal secretion of pituitary
Essential component of motivational system
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
Part of Hypothalamus
Regulates circadian rhythms (light-dark cycle)
Cerebral Hemispheres - Contents
Cerebral cortex, underlying white matter, Basal Ganglia, Amygdala, Hippocampal Formation, Corpus Callosum
Amygdala Involved In
Emotion - Pleasure/Pain Memories
Hippocampus Involved In
Memory Storage
Basal Ganglia Involved In
(Substantia Nigra) Where 80% of Brains Dopamine is produced
Five Principles Of Organization of Major Functional Systems
1 - Each functional system involves several brain regions that carry out different types of information processing
2 - Identifiable Pathways Link Components of a Functional System
3 - Each Part of the Brain Projects in an Orderly Fashin Onto the Next, Creating Topographical Maps
4 - Functional Systems are Hierarchically Organized
5 - Functional Systems on One Side of Brain Control the Other Side of Body
Serial Processing - Two types of neurons
Principal Neurons (projection)
-Project to next stage of processing, usually excitatory
Local Interneurons
-Contact local neurons, usually inhibitory
Primary Areas of Cortex
Receive information from thalamus or project directly to spinal cord
Secondary Areas of Cortex
Unimodal association area
Higher order processing within single modality
Tertiary Areas
Multimodal association area
Cortex Organization - Layer 1
Molecular Layer
Contains dendrites of cells located deeper
Cortex Organization - Layer 2
External cell granule layer
Contains small speherical cells
Cortex Organization - Layer 3
External pyramidal cell layer
Larger and pyramidal shaped
Cortex Organization - Layer 4
Internal granule cell layer
Cortex Organization - Layer 5
Internal pyramidal cell layer
Cortex Organization - Layer 6
Multiform layer
Blends into white matter
Layers Organize Inputs and Outputs - Layer 1 & 2
Local cortico-cortical feedback connections from layers 5 and 6
Layers Organize Inputs and Outputs - Layer 2 & 3
Lateral Cortico-cortical connections
Layers Organize Inputs and Outputs - Layer 4
Main target of sensory information from thalamus
Receives all info from senses
Thickest layer of sensory system
Layers Organize Inputs and Outputs - Layer 5 & 6
Primary output layers to subcortical regions
Thickest region of motor system
Cortical Neuron Types
Projection Neurons
Local Interneurons
Projection Neurons (Shape, Location, Example)
Pyramidal shaped
Layers 3, 5, 6
Glutamate - primary neurotransmitter: excitatory
Local Interneurons (Layer, Example)
All layers
GABA: inhibitory
4 Groups of Nuclei
Anterior, Medial, Ventral, Posterior
Anterior Nuclei
Receives input from hypothalamus and hippocampal formation
Thought to participate in memory and emotion
Medial Nuclei
Receives input from basal ganglia, amygdala and midbrain
Implicated in memory
Ventral Nuclei
Ventral anterior and lateral carry information from basal ganglia and cerebellum to cortex
Important for motor control
Ventral posterior conveys somatosensory information
Posterior Nuclei
Includes medial geniculate (auditory system), latgeral geniculate (visual system), pulvinar (interconnected with parietal, occipital and temporal regions)
Additional Non-specific nuclei
Located along midline
Play role in arousal and integration of information from different sensory modalities
Reticular Nucleus
Sheet like covering that provides a feedback loop and helps modulate thalamic activity