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127 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The vestibular system senses?
dynamic forces of angular and linear accelerations as well as the static force of gravity NOT VELOCITY
Vestibular system stimulates compensatory motor reflexes which?
which maintains body equilibrium, balance, and retinal imagery
vestibulo-spinal reflexes
postural adjustments and generation of smooth body movement that keep the body balanced and prevents falling in gravity environment
vestibulo-occular reflex
maintains retinal image stability; keeps retinal image fixed as head moving
If the R and L firing rate is equal, the head is?
not moving; no motor compensatory reflexes needed
If R and L firing rates are not equal then CNS registers?
head movement
Eye deflection goes toward which firing rate?
lower firing rate
Damage to what CN causes loss of balance and inappropriate nystagmus?
CN 8
Vertigo
illusion of movement; you or the world around you is spinning
If head turns left, eyes turn?
right by same degree
Nystagmus can be induced by?
rotation, visual, or caloric stimulation
Nystagmus named for direction of what eye movement?
fast
Nystagmus is pathological if it?
occurs spontaneously or is sustained
Damage to R CN8 vestibular branch results in?
slow compensatory eye movement to R and very fast return of eye movement; fast movement is nystagmus
location of cell bodies for CN1 and CN2
telencephalon
location of cell bodies for CN3 and CN4
midbrain
location of cell bodies for CN5, CN6, CN7, and CN8
pons
location of cell bodies for CN9, CN10, CN12
medulla
location of cell bodies for CN11
cervical
Hair cells release which excitatory neurotransmitter?
glutamate or aspartate
Cell body for CN8 located?
Scarpa's ganglion
What type of jx found between hair cells?
tight
Bending of hair cell towards tall kinocilium causes?
open tip-link channels that allow K+ to come into cell
Does a hair cell have an AP?
NO
Depolarization of hair cell occurs at which membrane?
Increased transmitter release at which membrane?
apical membrane; basolateral membrane
Bending of hair cell away from tall kinocillium causes?
decreased number of channels; hyperpolarization of hair cell because K+ and Ca++ current decrease
Perilymph surround?
Contained by?
high or low K+?
surrounds membranous labyrinth; contained by bony labyrinth; low K+
Endolymph has high or low K+?
high K+
Membranous labyrinth made of?
single sheet of epithelial cells w/ tight jxs
Perilymph is equivalent to?
CSF; low K+ and high Na+
Endolymph contained in?
Secreted by?
membranous labyrinth; secreted by stria vascularis in scala media
Overproduction of endolymph causes?
Meniere's Disease-high fluid pressure w/in membranous labyrinth
transepithelial voltage; endocochlear potential?
+80mV
Transbasolateral membrane voltage?
-60mV
Transapical membrane voltage?
-140mV
Motion of hair cell stereocilia causes K+ to move along what type of gradient?
electrical gradient NOT concentration gradient
Ampulla contains?
neuroepithelial cells
Ampulla transduces what type of accelerations?
angular
Macula transduces what type of accelerations?
linear accelerations
Horizontal semicircular canal sterocilia has tall kinocilium?
medial
Ear stones made of?
CaCO4
Otolith organs (ear stones) detect what type of forces?
Caused by?
linear; static displacement of hair bundles due to gravity, and transient displacement of hair bundles due to linear acceleration or deceleration
X axis
forward-backward
Y axis
left-right
Z axis
up-down
Do angular accelerations affect otolith organs?
NO; only linear accelerations
How are hair cells orientated?
back to back w/ respect to the ridge called the striola
How is saccule polarized?
away from the striola
How is the utricle polarized?
toward the striola
Macula in the saccule detects linear changes in what plane?
vertical plane; upward/downward along Z axis;
example is riding in an elevator
Macula in the utricle detects linear changes in what plane?
horizontal plane; forward and backward along the X azis as well as side to side along the Y axis; example is riding in the car or head tilt
Semicircular canals are?
6 areas of neuroepithelium in the membranous labyrinth
Is ataxia contralateral or ipsilateral?
always ipsilateral
Where do deep cerebellar nuclei project to?
thalamus VA/VL then to frontal cortex
Do mossy fibers travel in the middle cerebellar peduncle or the inferior cerebellar peduncle?
middle
Do climbing fibers travel in the inferior cerebellar peduncle or the middle cerebellar peduncle
inferior
What is the inhibitory neurotransmitter released by the purkinje cells onto the deep cerebellar nuclei?
GABA
What is the excitatory neurotransmitter released by the mossy fibers and climbing fibers onto the cerebellar cortex?
glutamate
Which deep cerebellar nuclei would be active in a piano or violin player?
emboliform and globose
Which fibers are the major input to the cerebellum?
corticopontine fibers
Corticopontine fibers synapse on ______ nuclei before crossing the midline?
pontine
After corticopontine fibers decussate they enter the cerebellum in which peduncle? Innervate the entire cerebellar cortex as what type of fibers?
middle; mossy
What two types of fibers are components in the inferior cerebellar peduncle?
climbing fibers and vestibular fibers
Can the primary vestibular fiber synapse on the cerebellum directly?
Yes
Where is the secondary vestibular fiber from and where does it synapse?
from pons/medulla; synapses on cerebellum
What 2 things do the vestibular fibers innervate?
vermis and vestibulocerebellum
What is the major output from the cerebellum?
superior cerebellar peduncle
How many climbing fibers per purkinje neuron?
one
What is the output of cerebellar cortex to deep cerebellar nuclei?
purkinje cell
What are the 3 layers of the cerebellar cortex?
molecular layer, purkinje cell layer, granule cell layer
Mossy fibers synapse on which cell?
granule cell
What is found in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex?
purkinje cell dendrites, granular cell axons (parallel fibers)
What is found in the purkinje cell layer of the cerebellar cortex?
purkinje cell bodies (7 million)
What is found in the granule cell layer?
granule cells (neurons)
What are the most numerous neurons in the brain?
granule cells
What is the only output cell of the cerebellar cortex?
purkinje neuron
If you lesioned the left dentate nucleus what would you see in pt?
ipsilateral ataxia
Climbing fibers are afferents from? What do they produce?
inferior olive nucleus; produce a calcium spike firing pattern in purkinje cells
What does glutamate released from the climbing fiber do?
opens VG calcium channels on the purkunje cell
Do you see spatial or temporal summation with the climbing fiber and purkinje cell?
spatial
EPSP generated by the climbing fiber always stimulates what in the purkinje cell?
complex AP
With sensory stimulus how do climbing fibers fire and what do they produce?
fire at low frequency and produce 1-2 complex spikes/sec in purkinje cells
Parallel fibers (axons of the granule cells) receive afferent information from the?
mossy fibers from brainstem nuclei and spinal cord
What type of spike-firing pattern do parallel axons produce in purkinje cells?
simple spike-firing pattern
Glutamate released from the parallel fiber opens what channels on the purkinje cell?
Na+ channels
What type of summation do you see with parallel fibers and purkinje cells?
temporal and spatial summation which produce a single AP in a purkinje cell
What directs the action of parallel fibers on purkinje cells?
climbing fibers
What is a form of motor memory?
climbing fibers can produce LONG-TERM depression in the strength of selected parallel fiber synapses
What is input specificity?
ONLY those parallel fiber synapses firing simultaneously with the climbing fibers will show long-term depression
What is asynergia?
unregulated movements that are non-functional
What is the main second messenger that causes LTD?
calcium
After learning a task, what happens to the post-synaptic membrane under the parallel fibers?
depressed
The thalamus is bounded by?
anterior and posterior commisures
What receives massive reciprocal connections back from the cortex?
relay nuclei in the thalamus
What is the thalamus part of?
forebrain - diencephalon
What is found in the epithalamus?
parts of pretectum and the pineal body
What will parallel fiber synapses display following a paired firing of the synapse with a climbing fiber?
depressed (smaller) EPSP for up to one hr
Experience causes cerebellar circuits to be?
modified...this is learning
Lateral lesions of the cerebellum occur in?
paramedian or cerebrocerebellum
Taste sensory input travels to what relay nuclei?
VPM
What do you test for in lateral lesions of the cerebellum?
action or intention tremor, asynergia, dysmetria, dysrhythmia, dysdiadochokinesia
What is dysmetria?
pt can't approximate areas of body
Before learning, how many APs does the purkinje cell fire per second?
51
How do you test for truncal ataxia?
Romberg test - Ask pt to close their eyes and stand still; if they wobble or move, there is a problem
VPL receives sensory from?
body
With the parallel fiber firing, what receptors are stimulated?
direct and indirect glutamate receptors
LGN receives sensory input from?
eyes through the optic tract
During the motor learning process what happens to the number of complex spikes?
increases
The rise in intracelluar ionic calcium in the purkinje cell causes an increase in? Now what?
protein kinase C; further release of stored calcium for the SR
Cerebellar lesions cause ataxia on what side of the lesion?
ipsilateral
Mamillary bodies are important for?
memory
Midline lesions of the cerebellum cause?
truncal ataxia - unsteady gait, and eye movements abnormalities accompanied by intense vertigo, nausea, and vomiting
A decrease in APs from the purkinje cells causes _____ of the deep cerebellar nuclei
disinhibition
What are the major regulatory functions of the hypothalamus?
autonomic fx, endocrine fx, homeostasis, and limbic system
MGN receives sensory input from?
cochlea
What does the presynaptic terminal of the parallel fiber release?
glutamate
What is dysdiadochokinesia?
pt unable to perform rapid alternating movements
The direct (AMPA) channel allows?
a rise in intracellular Na+ in the purkinje cell which causes further depolarization
Strong depolarization of the purkinje cell causes?
VG calcium channels to open
The indirect (mGluR1) receptor allows?
a rise in intracellular second messengers IP3 and DAG in the purkinje cell which also causes a rise in calcium and PKC
What causes long-term depression?
AP on parallel fiber and AP on climbing fiber occurring simultaneously
Which fiber fires more frequently during learning?
climbing
Sensory from middle ear for balance travels to what relay nuclei?
VPL
What happens to the deep cerebellar nuclei with motor learning?
disinhibition
Lateral lesions of the cerebellum cause?
appendicular ataxia - unsteady limb movement
How many APs are fired per second with the combined firing for the purkinje cells?
51
VPM receives sensory input from?
head