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61 Cards in this Set

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What subtle changes in function occur in split brain patients?
when something is shown to the left hemis. the info goes only to the noverbal right hemis. and does not travel to the left(language) so he cannot name what he saw. He can p/u what he saw with his left hand. When visually seen with the right hemis. it goes to the language left and he can name it.
Location and basic function of the occipital lobe?
Cortical lobes at the back of the brain responsible for vision and visual perception
Location and function of Reticular formation
A diffuse set of neurons in the core of the brainstem that screens incoming information and arouses the cortex. Keeps you alert and sometimes even conscience.
Define receptor site
Where the neurotransmitter meets the Dendrite in order to process the messege and pass it through the axon. The neurotransmitter is recognized by the dendrite by its three dimensional shape.
Define the all-or-none principle.
the action potential fires either completely or not at all. There is no such thing as "partial" action potential.
What are three ways that poisons and drigs act at the synapse?
By replacing, decreasing, or enhancing the amount of neurotransmitter.
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
What are your major organ systems doing when your sympathetic nervous system is dominant?
Symp-heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure increases. Stops digestive & eliminative processes. Releases hormones into the blood stream. Result oxygen and energy in blood stream to the skeletal muscles. Helping you to cope with the stress to "fight or flight"
How was functional plasticity exibited in the boy who had the stroke?
A part of the boys brain was removed and the remaining part replaced a minor function of itself with a major function that was removed. Ex. replaced perceptual awarenes with language.
Location and function of Medulla?
Responsible automatic body functions as in breathing, heartbeat, and other vital life functions. Located at the base of the brain stem.
Define Soma
(cell body)the part of the neuron that contains the cell nucleus, as well as other structures that help the neuron carry out its functions. The cells life support system.
What happens to the sesory and muscle impulses and reflexes when the spinal cord is severd?
Results in loss of sensory information. Inability to feel below point where severed, nor can you move muscles below where cord is severed; but reflexes stay intact.
Location and function of Pons?
A structure at the top of the brainstem that is involved in respiration, movement, waking, sleep, and dreaming.
Name the two branches of the Autonomic Nervous System?
Sympathetic and parasympathetic.
What are the two divisions of the peripheral nervous system?
Somatic Nervous System and Autonomic Nervous System
State Condition in which the sympathetic or parasympathetic are dominant.
Sympathetic is dominant during stressful times, either mental or physical. Para- is dominant when you are relaxed, low stress mental and physical state.
Location and function of the Cerebelum?
Structure at the base of the brain, behind the brainstem, responsible for maintaining smooth movement, balance, and some aspects of perception and cognition.
Location and function of the hypothalmus
A small brain structure beneath the thalamus that maintains homeostasis and regulates emotions and drives, such as hunger, thirst, sex, and aggression.
Location and function of the thalamus?
A brain structure at the top of the brainstem that relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex.
Describe the specialized functions associated with the right hemisphere. How does it process sensory and muscle info about the opposite side of the body?
Nonverbal abilities (music and art, perceputal and spatio-manipulative skills. Some language comprehension. Left hand touch.
Define dendrite.
branching neuron structures that receive neural impulses from other neurons and convey impulses toward the cell body.
How is MRI used to study the brain?
Produces high-resolution three-dimensional pictures of the brain useful for identifying abnormalities and mappin brain structures and function.
Define neurotransmitter
substances known or suspected to regulate the actions of glands & muscles, promote sleep or stimulate mental and physical alertness; affect learning and memory, affect motivation, emotions, and psychological disorders (ex. depression and schizophrenia)
Location and basic function of the motor control areas?
at the very back of the frontal lobes, sends messages to the various muscles and glands in the body. All neural signals that instigate boluntary movement originate here.
What are endorphins?
Chemical substances in the nervous system that are similar in structure and action to opiates and are involved in pain control, pleasure, and memory.
How is CAT used to study the brain?
Reveals the effects of strokes, injuries, tumors, and other brain disorders through a computer that creates cross-sectional pictures of the brain using X-Rays.
Define Axon
A long, tubelike structure that conveys impulses away from the neurons cell body toward other neurons or muscles or glands.
How was functional plasticity exibited in the woman with dystonia?
the brain tried to heal itself by returning the brain to the way it was before the surgery.
What is the function of the Autonomatic Nervous System?
Responsiblefor involuntary tasks, such as heart rate, digestion, pupil dialation and breathing. Maintains the body's steady state of normal functioning.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
The part that involves nerves peripheral to (outside of) the brain and spinal cord. Chief function to carry information to and from the CNS. It links the brain and spinal cord to the body's sense receptors, muscles, and glands.
What is the endocrine system?
A system of glands located throughout the body that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Location and basic function of the temporal lobe?
cortical lobes above the ears involved in audition (hearing), language comprehension, memory, and some emotional control
Describe the events when one neuron "talks to" another neuron.
Neurotransmitter chemicals are stored in small synaptic vesicles at the end of the axon. When action potentials reach the axon terminal, they stimulate the release of neurotransmitter molecules into the synaptic gap. The neurotransmiter chemicals then travl across the synaptic gap, and bind to receptor sites on the dendrites or cell body of the receiving neuron. If the receiving neuron is sufficeintly stimulated, a new action potential is generated and communication is successful.
Location and basic function of the sensations area?
At the front of the parietal lobes, receives informaion about pressure, pain, touch, and temperature.
What is the function of the Somatic Nervous System?
Consists of all the nerves that connect to sensory receptors and control skeletal muscles. Key role in communication through the entire body. You hear a qeustion from your teacher and then raise your hand to answer.
Location of Spinal Cord
Begins at the base of the brain and continuing down the back.
How are electrical recording used to study the brain?
Electrodes pasted to the skin or skull translate brain waves to produce wavy lines on a moving piece of paper. Used in studiying changes in brain waves during sleep and dreaming.
If a "split brain" subject is blindfolded and has an object placed inhis left hand, to which cerebral hemisphere will the information go? Will the person be able to say the name of the object?
Information would go from his left hand to right hemisphere. However, it would not cross from the right hemisphere to the left which controls speech. He would not be able to say the name of the object.
Define terminal branches of axon (also called terminal buttons)
form junctions with other cells.
Define synaptic vesicle
vesicles containing neurotransmitters from one axon to the axon terminal, and release the neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap.
Location and basic function of Broca's area?
in the left frontal lobes is responsible for speech production
Describe how "split brain" research is used to describe the funtions of the right and left hemispheres of the brain.
when something is shown to the left hemis. the info goes only to the noverbal right hemis. and does not travel to the left(language) so he cannot name what he saw. He can p/u what he saw with his left hand. When visually seen with the right hemis. it goes to the language left and he can name it.
Define synapse
The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
Define Resting Potential
when the neuron is inactive, or resting, it is said to be polarized. The fuid inside has mostly negatively charged iorns, whereas the fluid outside the axon is the "polar opposite"--primarily positive.
How is electrical stimulation used to study the brain?
Electrodes are inserted into the brain to record the naturally occurring electrical activity of neurons or to stimulate certain areas with weak electrical currents.
What are hormones?
Chemicals manufactured by endocrine glands and circulated in the bloodstream to produce bodily changes or maintain normal bodily functions.
What are your major organ systems doing when your parasympathetic nervous system is dominant?
Conserves energy by slowing your heart rate, lowering your blood pressure, and increases your digestive system and eliminative processes.
Define Neuron
Individual nerve cell responsible for processing, storing, and transmitting information throughout the body, as well as within the brain.
What is the differance between plasticity in the woman from in the boy?
The brain was a help in functional plasticity by mending and replacing a major function for the boy, the brain was hinderance in fp by trying to return the repaired brain back to the damaged state although its process was repairing it to its original state (which was damaged)
Define Action Potential
A neural impulse that carries information along the axon of a neuron. The action potential is generated when positively charged ions move in and out of channels in the axon's membrane.
Function of the spinal cord.
Contains nerve fibers that link the brain to other parts of the body. Fibers relay incoming sensory to the brain and sends messages from the brain to muscles and glands.
How are lesion techniques used to study the brain?
systematically destroying (disecting) brain tissue to study the effects on behavior and mental processes
How is PET used to study the brain? and does PET provide information about brain activity?
Radioactive form of glucose in the bloodstream. Originally designed to detect abnormalities also used to identify brain areas active during ordinary activities(reading, singing, etc.)
Describe the specialized functions associated with the left hemisphere. How does it process sensory and muscle info about the opposite side of the body?
Language functions (speaking, reading, writing, and understanding language. Analytical Functions (math) Right-hand touch
What is functional plasticity?
Rewiring of the brain ability to compensate or recover from an injury to the brain.
Location and basic function of the frontal lobe?
Cortical lobes in front of the brain, which govern motor control, speech production, and higher functions, such as thinking,personality, emotion and memory.
What is the pancreas?
an endocrine gland that secretes the hormone insulin to lower the blood sugar level to a more normal, safer level
What are two major functions of endocrine glands?
to help the Autonomic Nervous System respond to emergencies and maintain homeostasis, establishing a balance and normal functioning of bodily processes.
What level and type of neurotransmitter is involved in Parkinsons Disease and schizophrenia?
Low levels of Dopamine in Parkinson's Disease and high levels of Dopamine in schizophrenia. Affects movement, attention, memory, learning, and emotion.
Location and basic function of Wernick's area?
in th left temporal lobe is involved in language comprehension
Location and basic function of the parietal lobe?
Cortical lobes at the top of the brain where bodily sensations are interpreted. Pain, cold, hot, etc.