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61 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
contents of the membranous labrynth
hair cells (communicates head position), organ of Corti (audition), vestibular apparatus (semicircular canals for angular displacement, utricle & saccule for forward, backward, & verticle movements)
Describe the ionic composition of endolymph.
similar to intracellular fluid, high K+
Describe the mechanism of hair cell depolarization.
movement of stereocilia toward kinocilium depolarizes the hair cell (K+ in), while movement away from the kinocilium hyperpolarizes the hair cell.
effect & mechanism of vestibular nerve when head turns left.
hyperpolarization of the hair cells in the right horizontal canal, and depolarization of hair cells in the left horizontal canal. This will cause a decrease in firing rate in the right vestibular nerve fibers, and an increase in firing rate on the left.
lesions of the upper midbrain or above (for example in the cortex or internal capsule) produce what posture?
decorticate posture (arm flexion, leg extension)
Lesions in the lower midbrain or pons result in what type of posture?
decerebrate (all limbs extended)
what does a progression in a patient from decorticate posture to decerebrate posture indicate?
rostral to caudal deterioration of the brainstem (dangerous for respiratory center)
begins in medial vestibular nucleus, terminates at cervical levels, and controls neck movements that position the head.
medial vestibulospinal tract
Uses vestibular input to hold images stable on retina, during fast head movements
VOR
Uses visual input to hold images stable on retina during slow head movements
optokinetic reflex
Bring objects of interest into the fovea
saccade
Holds moving targets in the fovea
smooth pursuit
Adjusts eyes so that both can foveate the object at any depth
vergence
Horizontal saccades are generated where?
in the pontine reticular formation
vertical saccades are generated where?
in the mesencephalic reticular formation.
Damage to any of
the structures involved in vestibulo-ocular or optokinetic reflexes, including the cerebellum, and the vestibular apparati, vestibular nuclei or damage to other parts of the brainstem, results in what?
pathological nystagmus
a lesion of the MLF (often resulting from multiple sclerosis) results in what?
Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (weak conjugated adduction on the affected side)
caused by the dislodging of an otolith crystal
benign positional vertigo (no hearing loss)
caused by the overproduction (or insufficient drainage) of endolymph,
which can rupture the membranous labyrinth and cause mixing of endolymph and perilymph.
vertigo (Meniére’s Disease: sustained firing of CN VIII, deafness, N/V
caused by the overproduction (or insufficient drainage) of endolymph,
which can rupture the membranous labyrinth and cause mixing of endolymph and perilymph.
vertigo (Meniére’s Disease: sustained firing of CN VIII, deafness, N/V
What does an EEG measure?
Real-time electrical potentials that are generated in the cortex and volume
conducted through the meninges, cranium and skin.
created by ann EPSP, which draws current from areas farther away, creating a current source.
local current sink
Adjacent positive and negative regions are called a(n):
dipole
the change in EEG that occurs in response to a sensory stimulus, such as a flash of light or shock to the skin. This technique is used to assess the function of an ascending sensory system, from the periphery all the way to cortex.
evoked potential
EEG characteristics of sleep & wakefulness:
awake state--high frequency, low amplitude, desynchronized EEG. Slow wave sleep--low frequency, high amplitude, synchronized EEG.
sleep stage characterized by slight slowing of the EEG
1
sleep stage characterized by high-amplitude k complexes and low-amplitude sleep spindles
2
sleep stages characterized by slow high-amplitude delta waves
3 and 4
reticular formation structure located in the tegmentum of the caudal midbrain and rostral pons; stimulation there causes wakefulness, and lesions cause sleep.
ascending reticular activating system (ARAS)
a set of medial forebrain structures that are interposed between the hypothalamus and lateral forebrain (sensorymotor)structures.
limbic system
Functions in identification of appropriate object for drives
amygdala
Functions in identification of appropriate context for drive
hippocampus
paths that connect the amygdala to the hypothalamus
stria terminalis, ventral amydalofugal path
path that connects the hippocampus to the hypothalamus
fornix
Functions in assigning affective (emotional) significance to sensory
stimuli, and initiate appropriate emotional responses.
amygdala
a constellation of behavioral problems
in monkeys, after bilateral damage to the temporal lobes, specifically the amygdala. These include attempting to eat non-food objects, lack of fear of predators, attempting to copulate with animals from a different species.
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
allocortical structure that receives processed sensory input from the entorhinal cortex
hippocampus
Limbic structures in the medial temporal lobe include:
hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, amygdala, parahippocampal cortex.
lesion producing anterograde amnesia:
medial temporal lobe
critical structures involved in memory consolidation:
the hippocampus,entorhinal cortex, and perirhinal cortex. Amygdala is not involved
type of memory affected by ECT
memory consolidation (hippocampus; may take as long as two years)
areas of the brain that function in recollection of episodic (events) & semantic (facts) memory
Hippocampus, nearby cortical areas, diencephalon
area of the brain that functions in recollection of skilled memory
striatum, motor areas of the cortex, cerebellum
area of the brain that functions in emotional associations
amygdala
area of the brain that functions in conditioned reflexes
cerebellum
what is the physical basis for memory formation (what is a memory)?
new dendritic spine formation
hippocampal neurons that fire to mark a particular location (formation of a cognitive map)
place cells
first cells to die in the brain during hypoxia
CA1 in the hippocampus (Sommer's area)
subcortical area of the telencephalon that provides a major cholinergic input to the hippocampus
septum
adjacent structures to the septum that provide cholinergic input to the neocortex
nucleus basalis of Meynert, diagonal band of Broca
lesion that produces misdirected aggression (site and name of lesion):
septum; septal rage
Pathways from the septum, hippocampus and amygdala, traveling through the lateral hypothalamus and ending in the midbrain tegmentum
medial forebrain bundle
location of "reward center" affected during self-stimulation
medial forebrain bundle
dopaminergic pathway from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nuc. accumbens.
mesolimbic pathway
pathway affected in drug abuse (reward center):
mesolimbic dopamine pathway
damage to the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus, MD, and the mammillary bodies of the hypothalamus; patient has problems forming new memories and often confabulates
Korsakoff's psychosis
two main systems affected in Alzheimer's patients:
hippocampus (anterograde), basal forebrain (projects to forebrain w/ ACh; retrograde)
toxin that produces Alzheimer's disease; directly related to cholesterol levels:
Beta amyloid
first neurons to degenerate in Alzheimer's patients
perirhinal/entorhinal areas
method of diagnosis of Alzheimer's
amyloid plaques & neurofibrillary tangles
method of diagnosis of Alzheimer's
amyloid plaques & neurofibrillary tangles