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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
FUNCTION OF DENDRITES
RECEIVE STIMULUS FROM OTHER NEURONS
HAS A NUCLEUS AND ORGANELLES, CELL METABOLISM
CELL BODY
LITERAL MEANING OF HILLOCK
LITTLE HILL
FUNCTION OF THE AXON HILLOCK
WHERE IMPULSES BEGIN
WHICH WAY DO AXON IMPULSES TRAVEL
AXON IMPULSES TRAVEL DOWN THE AXON
ANOTHER NAME FOR AXON TERMINALS IS __________
TERMINAL BUTTONS ( SEE PP 392 FOR PICTURE)
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF AN AXON
THE CONDUCTING COMPONENT OF THE NEURON, IT GENERATES NERVE IMPULSESAND TRANSMITS THEM AWAY FROM THE CELL BODY.
STRUCTURE OF THE AXON SHEATH ( MYELIN SHEATH)
CELLS WRAPPED AROUND THE AXON TO FORM A SHEATH.
FUNCTION OF THE AXON SHEATH ( MYELIN SHEATH)
PROTECTS AND ELECTRICALLY INSULATES FIBERS FROM ONE ANOTHER , AND INCREASES THE SPEED OF NERVE IMPULSES
SECTIONS OF AXON NOT COVERED BY THE MYELIN SHEATH
NODES
DEFINE MEMBRANE POTENTIAL
A SMALL ELECTRICAL CHARGE EXISTS ACROSS THE CELL MEMBRANE
MEMBRANE POTENTIAL...EVERY CELL HAS A (+ OR - ) CHARGE ON THE OUTSIDE,,,AND A ( + OR - ) CHARGE INSIDE
+ OUTSIDE,,, AND - INSIDE
WHAT IS THE RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL
-70 mv
WHAT ARE THE 3 WAYS THAT THE RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL CAN CHANGE
DEPOLARIZATION
REPOLARIZATION
HYPERPOLARIZATION
GIVE THE EXAMPLE OF DEPOLARIZATION AND DEFINE
MEMBRANE POTENTIAL BECOMES LESS NEGATIVE OR MORE POSITIVE -70 mv----- -55mv------ + 35 mv
DEFINE REPOLARIZATION
HAPPENS AFTER DEPOLARIZATION ,,,MEMBRANE GOES BACK TO - 70 mv
DEFINE HYPERPOLARIZATION
WHEN THE MEMBRANE BECOMES MORE NEGATIVE THAN -70 mv ....for example from -70 mv ------- - 90 mv
WHAT ARE THE TWO WAYS TO OPEN GATED ION CHANNELS
LIGAND GATED CHANNEL
VOLTAGE GATED ION CHANNEL
ARE GATED ION CHANNELS ALWAYS OPEN
NO
GATED CHANNELS HAVE A MOLECULAR "GATE" ( USUALLY A PROTEIN MOLECULE) THAT CAN CHANGE SHAPE TO OPEN OR CLOSE THE CHANNEL IN RESPONSE TO VARIOUS SIGNALS
NOTE FROM BOOK PP 398
ANOTHER NAME FOR LIGAND IS _______
CHEMICAL
HOW DOES A LIGAND GATED CHANNEL OPEN
A RECEPTOR IS ATTATCHED TO THE CHANNEL, WHEN A MOLECULE OR A LIGAND ( CHEMICAL) BINDS TO THE RECEPTOR THE CHANNEL OPENS
WHEN A LIGAND GATED CHANNEL OPENS ,,,WHAT IS ALLOWED TO FLOW THROUGH
IONS ARE ALLOWED TO FLOW THROUGH,,,,REMEMBER ,,,IT'S CALLED A GATED ION CHANNEL
WHEN DO VOLTAGE GATED ION CHANNELS OPEN AND CLOSE
THEY OPEN AND CLOSE IN RESPONSE TO CHANGES IN THE MEMBRANE POTENTIAL
WHAT IS THE THRESHOLD VOLTAGE OF VOLTAGE GATED ION CHANNELS
THRESHOLD VOLTAGE IS -55 mv
WHEN DISCUSSING VOLTAGE GATED ION CHANNELS,,ONCE THE GATE IS OPENED AT THRESHOLD -55 mv,,, THE GATE STAYS OPEN FOR A SHORT PERIOD,,,THEN THEY INACTIVATE,,ONCE INACTIVE,,THE GATE WILL NOT OPEN AGAIN,,,EVEN AT THRESHOLD OF -55 mv,,,AFTER THE INACTIVE STATE,,THE GATE GOES BACK TO A CLOSED STATE
NOTE
WHAT ARE THE ONLY TYPES OF CELLS THAT CAN HAVE ACTION POTENTIALS
ONLY CELLS WITH EXCITABLE MEMBRANES ( NEURONS) AND MUSCLE CELLS CAN GENERATE ACTION POTENTIALS
WHEN DISCUSSING ACTION POTENTIAL,,,,NA+ ENTERING THE CELL CAUSES THE CELL TO ( POLARIZE OR DEPOLARIZE)
DEPOLARIZES BECAUSE NA+ IS ENTERING THE CELL
A.P. ....IF THE MEMBRANE POTENTIAL REACHES THRESHOLD (-55mv) THEN VOLTAGE GATED NA+ CHANNELS DO WHAT
THEY OPEN
A.P. WHEN THE AXON DEPOLARIZES,,,WHAT IS THE VOLTAGE
+35 mv
NA + GOES IN
K + GOES OUT
NOTE
A.P. ,,,, WHEN K+ DIFFUSES OUT ,,,WHAT THEN HAPPENS TO THE AXON
THE AXON REPOLARIZES SO,,,WE HAVE NA+ CHANNELS CLOSING AND K+ CHANNELS OPEN
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE NA+?/K+ PUMP WHEN DISCUSSING THE A.P.
NA+ IS FORCED OUT, K+ IS FORCED IN ,,,MEMBRANE POTENTIAL GOES BACK TO RESTING ( -70 mv)
WHAT ARE THE TWO WAYS THAT AN ACTION POTENTIAL CAN BE MOVED OR CONDUCTED
CONTINUOUS CONDUCTION
SALUTORY CONDUCTION
DEFINE CONTINUOUS CONDUCTION
THIS IS THE SPEED OF THE A.P. THIS IS IN UNMYELINATED AXONS AP IS FROM THE HILLOCK TO THE TERMINALS,,,SLOWER THAN SALUTORY CONDUCTION
SALUTORY CONDUCTION
OCCURS ON MYELINATED AXONS ,,,ACTION POTENTIALS OCCUR AT THE NODES,,,1000X FASTER THAN CONTINUOUS CONDUCTION
ALL OR NONE LAW
ONCE THE MEMBRANE REACHES THRESHOLD, THERE WILL BE AN AP....NO STOPPING IT,,,ALL AP ARE THE SAME SIZE
WHY DONT AP RUN BACKWARDS
BECAUSE VOLTAGE GATED NA+ CHANNELS W/IN 2mm UPSTREAM OF THE LAST AP ARE INACTIVE
DEFINE REFRACTORY PERIOD
EITHIER IMPOSSIBLE OR DIFFICULT FOR AN AXON TO HAVE AN AP
DEFINE ABSOLUTE REFRACTORY PERIOD
WHEN VOLTAGE GATED NA+ CHANNELS ARE INACTIVE
DEFINE RELATIVE REFRACTORY PERIOD
WHEN IT IS DIFFICULT BUT NOT IMPOSSIBLE FOR THE AXON TO HAVE AN AP
WHAT KIND OF REFRACTORY PERIOD OCCURS WHEN THE CELL IS HYPERPOLARIZES
RELATIVE REFRACTORY PERIOD
DEFINE SYNAPSE
TO CLASP OR JOIN
DEFINE SYNAPSE
A JUNCTION THAT MEDIATES INFORMATION TRANSFER FROM ONE NEURON TO THE NEXT