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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List the 5 subdivisions of the brain, and the corresponding structures.
Telencephalon--cerebrum (cortex, amygdalia, basal ganglia)

Diencephalon--Thalamus, Hypothalamus


Metencephalon--pons, cerebellum

Where are the cells of origin for sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways?
sympathetic--intermediolateral cell column (T1-L3)

parasympathetic--cranial nerve nuclei (midbrain & medulla), sacral spinal cord (S2-S4)
List 4 types of glial cells and their functions.
Oligodendrocytes--manufacture myelin in CNS

Schwann cells--manufacture myelin in PNS

Astrocytes--NT uptake, absorption of excess K+

Microglia--phagocytose dead neural tissue
Describe Wallerian degeneration.
Axon distal to lesion (to terminal) degenerates: anterograde
Define chromatolysis.
Happens to the cell body when axon proximal to lesion degenerates (retrograde degeneration)
Define transsynaptic degeneration.
damage to a cell that receives the damaged projection (anterograde transsynaptic degeneration) or a cell that projected to the damaged neuron (retrograde transsynaptic degeneration).
Define sprouting in the context of nerve regeneration.
regenerating nerve grows along the Schwann cell path at a rate of ~1mm day.
List the Nernst equation.
Define equilibrium potential.
The equilibrium potential of an ion is the potential to which the ion will bring the membrane, if it is free to diffuse.
List the Goldman equation.
Define Nernst potential
equation that describes the movement of an ion from high concentration to low concentration in terms of temperature, valence, and concentration
Define reversal potential.
the potential in a voltage clamp experiment at which the current reverses direction; indicates that ion's resting membrane voltage
the point at which the Na current is equal to the K current.
causes the rapid depolarization of the upstroke of the AP
Na cycle
action of tetrodotoxin
blocks Na channels
the inverse of resistance:
antibody reaction to ACh channels in skeletal muscle.
Myasthenia gravis
antibody reaction to presynaptic Ca channels.
Eaton-Lambert myasthenic syndrome
demyelination of PNS axons which can recover (Schwann cells). Initially following loss of myelin, there are conduction failures due to lack of Na+ channels in internodal membrane. Eventually, some Na+ channels develop and conduction (albeit slowed) can occur.
Guillain-Barré syndrome
a genetic disease in which a triple dose (3 genes) of peripheral myelin exists, leading to decreased conduction, demyelination and muscle
Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease
Receptor potentials that generate APs directly(somatosensory receptors, olfactory receptors).
generator potentials
receptors that can signal intensity and duration of the stimulus.
slowly adapting receptor
the rate of change (dynamic property) of the stimulus is signaled (onset and offset).
rapidly adapting receptor
respond to position and movement of
limbs (kinesthesia).
Joint Receptor endings
signals tension of muscle during contraction
Golgi tendon organ
sensory receptor and axon that communicates sense information to the CNS. Cell body usually located in the dorsal root ganglion or cranial nerve ganglion.
First-order neuron
from spinal cord or brainstem projects to the part of the thalamus that is specific for that sense modality.
Second-order neuron
from the thalamus, projects to the 1° sensory cortex specific for
that modality.
Third-order neuron
enbles the body to respond quickly to unexpected changes in load (maintenance of upright posture).
stretch reflex
nerve lesion resulting in clonus
upper motor neuron
neurons in the spinal cord that receive excitatory input from
á-MNs and inhibit á-MNs.
renshaw cells
contraction of distal portion of spindle fibers, which stretches the
spindle, causing increased Ia, II discharge.
gamma motor neurons
ascend in fasciculus gracilis and synapse in nucleus gracilis
afferents from lower extremities (T7 and lower)
in fasciculus cuneatus and synapse in nucleus cuneatus
afferents from upper extremities (T6 and higher)
where is the soma of a neuron who’s axon is in the dorsal column?
dorsal root ganglion
hemisection: all sensory loss below level of lesion, loss of tactile sensation ipsilateral to lesion, loss of pain and temperature contralateral to the lesion (in predicting sensory and motor loss following a lesion, (remember to start at the lesion and follow tracts distally).
Brown-Séquard Syndrome
cyst that forms from within the center of the spinal cord (intra-axially), leading to a bilateral loss of pain/temp sensation in the affected body segments.
size of a motor unit is determined by:
the number of fibers that the á-MN innervates
Increasing the strength of contraction is accomplished by:
recruiting more motor units
recruitment order of motor neurons:
slow twitch, fast twitch fatigue-resistant, fast twitch fatigable (small->medium->large)
motor neuron damage that will decrease or eliminate the stretch reflex, due to damage to the á-MN, Ia afferents, or the muscle itself.
motor neuron lesion that will cause exaggerated stretch reflexes due to release of the á-MN from descending inhibitory influences.
1° motor cortex area located at the pre-central gyrus (frontal lobe)
area 4
rostral to area 4, located in the premotor cortex
area 6
frontal eye field area located rostral to area 6 (frontal lobe)
area 8
Broca’s area (speech production)located in the ventral part of frontal lobe
area 44/45
1° somatosensory cortex located in the post-central gyrus (parietal lobe)
area 3,1,2
1°, 2° auditory cortex located in the superior temporal gyrus
areas 41,42
1° visual cortex located in the calcarine sulcus and occipital pole
area 17
visual association cortex surrounding area 17 (occipital)
areas 18, 19
Wernicke’s area (speech recog.)located in the inferior parietal lobe
areas 39,40
define optical power.
reciprocal of the focal length in meters (58.8 diopters for an ideal 17 mm eye)
components of the eye with refractive power
lens and cornea
enables accomodation of the eye for close objects
contraction of the ciliary muscle releasing tension on the suspensory ligaments (zonule of zinn) and allowing thelens to fatten
nucleus located in the midbrain below the superior colliculus
Edinger Westphal nucleus
correction for nearsightedness (myopia; eye too long)
concave lens
order of processing in the retina
photoreceptors (rods and cones) > bipolar cells > retinal ganglion cells.
first neurons in the processing stream of vision to produce action potentials
ganglion cells
describes a state of open Na+ channels in photoreceptors, allowing a steady depolarizing Na+ influx
dark current
causes release of excitatory transmitter onto bipolar cells, inducing a constant depolarization. Outward current at the soma is carried by K+, and ionic balances are maintained by the Na+/K+ pump.
dark current
hyperpolarizes the photoreceptor
steps in light hyperpolarization of photoreceptors
1. activation of rhodopsin
2. rhodopsin activates transducin
3. transducin activates PDE
4. PDE lowers cGMP
5. cGMP dissociates from Na+ channel
6. Na+ channel closes
amplification of photoreceptor hyerpolarization
1 rhodopsin activates 250,000 phosphodiesterases
more sensitive photoreceptors used in low-light conditions (scotopic vision)
photoreceptor requiring more light that is sensitive to different wavelengths (photopic)
ratio of cones:rods in the fovea
100% cones
visual system cells containing AMPA receptors that depolarize in response to glutamate
off-center bipolar cells
visual system cells containing metabotropic receptors (coupled to G-proteins) that hyperpolarize in response to glutamate
on-center/off-surround bipolar cells
important visual pathway for object discrimination
Parvocellular pathway to
temporal cortex
Rule of L for vision organization:
Lower half of retina
Lateral half of LGB
Loop of Meyer
Lingual gyrus
lesion producing right monocular blindness
right optic nerve (or getting stabbed in the right eye)
lesion resulting in homonomous hemianopsia
lateral geniculate, optic tract, optic radiations, visual cortex

lesion giving lower field homonymous quadrantanopsia:
lesion giving upper field homonymous
loop of Meyer or lingual gyrus
lesion producint homonymous hemianopsia with macular sparing:
lesion to calcarine artery
lesion producing bitemporal homonymous hemianopsia:
pituitary tumors which encroach on the optic chiasm
increased cranial pressure is transmitted via the subarachnoid space to the papilla (blind spot) where the optic nerve exits the retina. Swelling of the axons can be seen as blurring of
the disk margin.