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95 Cards in this Set

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Why Study Neurology
1. To speak a common language across disciplines
2.to understand etiologies of neurological disorders
3. to isolate areas of the disorder
4. to plan treatment
5. to arrive at a prognosis
5 items
Neurology
medical diagnosis and treatment of nervous system disorders
diagnosis and treatment
Neuroscience
anatomy and physiology of the nervous system
anatomy and physiology
Purpose of the Nervous System
Adapting to the environment by reacting to stimuli through sesory organs, the information will be transferred into language in the nervous system, the brain processes the information, and makes a motor respose
Disorders that Affect the Nervous System
Vascular (blood)
Infectious(bacterial, viral)
Traumatic(tbi)
Autoimmune(ms)
Metabolic(genetic)
Idiopathic/degenerative (Parkinsons)
Neoplastic (tumor)
Vitamin
Computerized Technology
Preferred for bleeds, strokes
Non static images
metabolization of glucose
Positron Emission Tomography
visualizes metabolic activity in the brain, can show areas of hypofunction thast have normal blood flow
fMRI
measures response of blood hemoglobin to the magnetic field
Angiography
good for looking at occulsions
What is a neuron
1. basic unit of the nervous system
2. conducts electrical impulses
3. motor (efferent) sensory (afferent)
4. Glial cells: provide nourishment
Motor Neurons
efferent, taking information from the brain to the muscle
Sensory Neurons
afferent, taking information from the muscle to the brain
Perikaryon
cytoplasm in cell body
Myelinated Axons
all axons in the nervous system are myelinated, not all neurons outside the nervous system are myelinated
-greater in diameter->faster transmission
Cell body
contains nucleus/mitochondria
Myelination
continues after birth
Nerve fiber
axon together with myelin sheath
White Matter
consists mainly of long processes of neurons, the majority being surrounded by myelin sheaths, nerve cell bodies are lacking
Gray Matter
contains the cell bodies of neruons, each with a nucleus embedded in a neruopil, made up predominantly of delicate neruonal and glial processes
White and Gray Matter
large numbers of neuroglial cells and a network of blood capillaries
Action Potential
all or none phemonmenon, electrical->chemical energy, influx of Na+ ions reverse polarity of membrane, lowers the threshold to -55mV
Low/high tone
how many muscle cells contract at a time
Resting Potential
membrane is semipermiable, resistance of -70mV
Sodium ion pump
K+ neutralized by organic anions of amiono acids and proteins
Life of an Action Potential
polarized->stimulation->depolarization->end of axon-> repolarized at beginning of axon
Absolute Refractory period
first few minutes after action potential was fired, needs to reast otherwise set off another action potential
Relative Refractory Period
can be fired but takes more than normal stimulation
Excitatory post synaptic potential
-opens ion channels
-Ach
Inhibitory post synaptic potential
-more resistant to opening
-DA
-GABA
Myesthenia Gravis
autoimmune disease
-breakdown at synaptic cleft
-receptors kill Ach
-Tx: conservation of energy
Brain Development
begins at 3 weeks, 3-16 weeks are the more critical
Embryonic Stage
0-8 weeks
-neural plate: week 3
-neural groove
-neural tube closes: day 25
-neural crest: PNS, ANS, ends at 4 weeks
-tube: brain and spinal cord
4th week
C shape, 3 primary vesicles form: pro, met, rhom, cranial nerves begin to appear
Fetal Period
9-38 weeks, 3rd month convolusoins begin, 4th month myelination
Neuronal Migration
travel alon glial pathways to predetermined places, travel inside and outside the brain, stem cells take on characteristics of neurons, brains can be rewired
Defects in Development
-genetic
-anecephaly
-cranium bifidum
-spina bifida
-hydrocephaly
-microcephaly
Anecephaly
neural tube did not close anteriorly, only the brainstem
SPina bifida
posterior neural tube did not close, could be exposed to lack of follic acid
Hydrocephaly
fluid in vessicles brain grows due to lack of formed structures, enlarged heads
Neocortex
the most sophisticated and advanced part of the brain
Peripheral Nervous System
31 pairs of spinal nerves, exit the spinal column to ennervate muscles of the body
12 pair of cranial nerves, exit the brain stem and midbrain to ennervate the muscles of the head, neck, and face
-somatic: goes to voluntary movement
-autonomic: involuntary movement
Autonomic Nervous System
involuntary activity, regulating viseral organs
-controlled by the hypothalamus and cortex
-Sympathetic: fight or flight
-Parasympathetic: restores metabolism
Divisions of the Brain
-Telencephalon
-Diencephalon
-Mesencephalon
-Rhombencephalon
Telencephalon
-Basal Ganglia
-Lobes
-Corpus Callosum
Diencephalon
-Limbic System
-Thalamus
-Hypothalamus
Mesencephalon
midbrain
Rhombencephalon
-Medulla
-Pons
-Cerrebellum
Lobes of the Brain
-Frontal
-Parietal
-Temporal
-Occipital
Landmarks of the Frontal Lobe
Motor
Precentral Gyrus:homoculus
Precentral lobe
Pre-motor area: Broca's area
Supplemental motor corex-medial: works with motor strip to do complex motor movements
Functions of the Frontal Lobe
Left lobe: language
Motor cortex for contralateral muscles
Personality, insight, and foresight
Broca's area
allows the correct sequences and selection of sounds, 3rd convolution, program skilled movements
Motor Strip
contracting muschles, efferent
Landmarks of the Parietal Lobe
Post central gyrus: sensory strip
Supramarinal gyrus & Angular gyrus: involved with reading, writing and visual spatial integration
Functions of the Parietal Lobe
Sensory cortex: afferent
Symbolic integratoin for reading and writing
Left/right orientation, spatial organization
use brain to figure out what caused the pain
Landmarks of the Temporal Lobe
Superior, medial, inferior gyri
Helschel's gyrus: all auditory information
Wernicke's decode auditory information (speech)
Cranial nerve 8
Functions of the Temporal Lobe
Hearing cortex
Comprehension of language
Appreciation of rhythm and melody
Primary auditory cortex
Pureword deafness/Auditory agnosia
Bilateral lesion
on Helschels: in ability to recognize sounds
on Wernickes: in ability to recognize speech sounds
Landmarks of the Occipital Lobe
Visual association areas
Calarine fissure: above and below visual field
Functions of the Occipital Lobe
-Primary visual cortex (needs help from the temporal and parietal lobes to decode
Hemianopsia
lost both visual fields in each eye
Cortical Blindness
the nerve is ok, but can't recognize familiar things, cortex cant decode or register the sense
Commissural Fibers
connects hemisphere to hemisphere
-corpus callosum
Association Fibers
neuron connections, connect 2 areas within a hemisphere
-arcuate fasiculus
Projection fibers
pathways to/from brain to spinal cord
-corticospinal tract
Commissureectomy
Corpus collusum disected for seizures
-see visual picture but cant if name object if its in the left field.
Cortopsinal tract
efferent and motor
Language Tract
Brocas area to Wernickes area and back, repitition and transferring of auditory to decoding and repeat
Internal capsule
all fibers go through passageway
Basal Ganglia
subcortical nuclei
putamen, globus pallidus, caudate nucleus
initiates motor activity and modulates cortical activity
-everything that goes to the cortex must first go to BG
Dyskinesias
-Chorea
-Athetosis
-Ballismus
-Tremor
-Bradykinesia
Chorea
rapid, jerky, may be flowing
-Huntintons: genetic
-Sydenhams: infectious
Athetosis
slow, writhing,
-Cerebal Palsy: slow twisting
Ballismus
severe, flalling, balistic movement
Tremor
Parkinsons: resting tremor
Bradykinesia
description of being slow
Tardive Dyskinesia
caused by antipsychotic drugs, may continue after discontinuing drugs
Parkinsons Disease
DA producing cells in the substantia nigra destroyed, making muscles stiff or tremor
-cog wheel rigidity, lead pipe rigidity, hardly any motion of speech articulators
Limbic System
-visceral brain
-deep in cortex
-connects hypothalamus with prefronal lobe and ANS
-involved with emotions and motivation
Structions of the Limbic System
hippocampus
amygdala
cingulate gyrus
olfactory cortex
Hippocampus
role in memory and learning
Anterograde Amnesia
bilateral damage to the hippocampus: inability to learn something new, TBI
Amygdala
rage fear, aggressiveness, controls ANS in relation to past experiences
Cingulate Gyrus
emotional, autonomic functions, associated with anxiety and OCD
Disorders of the Limbic System
Kluver Bucy syndrome
Korsakoff's syndrome
Alzheimer's disease
Kluver Bucy Syndrome
bilateral temporal lesions lying deep affecting the limbic system, lack of anger or fear
Korsakoff's syndrome
Vitamin D deficiency caused by alcoholism
Alzheimer's disease
degeneration in hippocampus
Diencephalon
Thalamus
large group of subcortical nuclei (connect with BG, cortex, and cerebellum for movemnet)
Hypothalamus
Thalamus
Sensory relay station (afferent-ipsolaterally)all senses except smell
Thalamus Disorders
Parethesia
Thalamic pain syndrome
Phantom Pain
Parethesia
abnormal sensation such as tingling, pinching or burning in the absence of pain
Thalamic Pain Syndrome
innocuous stimuli triggers pain (increased or decreased thresholds) pin or fire
Phantom Pain
feel pain in a limb that is not longer there
Hypothalamus
maintains homeostasis
controls ANS and pititary gland
regulates sleep, emotions, hunger, feeling of well being
Projections to limbic system and prefrontal cortex