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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
51 year old
MEMORY Impairment
Where's home

100 year anniversary
Age and AD
85+ years old 1/2 have AD
AD risk factors
prevalance doubles for every 10 years after 60

Higher risks if relative affected (genetic component)

Common in women

Head trauma

high cholesterol= brain's equivalent to heart attack

Lack of mental stimulation
Greatest population at risk for AD
Women who are illiterate
26 points out of 30 points for test
day of the week
What was last year?
What happens in the brain with AD
Lost of neurons, loss of functions
What region of the brain is affected with AD?
Hippocampal atrophy
There is associated brain dysfunction with AD
There are plaques and tangles in the AD brain
Post mortem

Brown crud layers
Ameloid plaques
Neurons start to fall apart
EAU- towel filaments
Original thoughts on cause of AD
Loss of cholinergic systme
Damage to acetylcholine neurons
Entire brain is affected leading to loss of memory
What is the major drug used to treat AD?
ACHE (acetylcholinesterase) inhibitor

Not simply a cholinergic problem, rather
There was still oxidative damage throughout most of brain
Drugs such as AcHesterase
doesn't cure, eliminate symptoms

Same as insectisides
Beta amyloid load
correlated with cognitive impairment

The more beta amyloid the lower the score
Amyloid hypothesis:
Bad actor in the play
What is the central molecule in AD
found in all plaques

aggregates into beta-pleated structure AKA beta amyloid
aggregate beta amyloid induces
dose-dependent toxicity
Vaccine to beta amyloid
Therapeutic in mice with AD symptoms
Mice with increase beta- amyloid
Cognitive deficits
Down's syndrome and AD
increase beta amyloid- induce similar AD brain profile

Chromosome 21 is the same chromosome that amyloid is made from

Plaques and tangles are developed in DS patients
What initiates AD
What is gamma secretase's function
Cleaves amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) into Amyloid beta 40 or 42
Ab 40 or 42
AD starts when more Ab42 is produced
Precursor protein stuck in membrane of neuron
Cleaved by beta secretase
Free fragment flows off
Gamma cuts it either at ab 40 or ab 42
40 is cleared away
42 increased prevalence
Glutamate (Stress)
Amyloid appears to block glutamate reputake by glial cells
Increase in glutamate causes what
increase NMDA receptor activation
NMDA affects what ion concentration
Intracellular Calcium

More calcium
More cell death
What do you use to treat moderate to serious patients
NMDA blocker
Neurons die via

membrane blebs, shinks,

chromtin condenses, nuclear fragments, DNA breakdown

NECROSIS comparison??!??!?!?
What is BDNF
Brain derived neurotrophic factor

Not adequate nourishment and there is a decreased probability of growth
Inducers of apoptosis corespond to AD conditions
beta amyloid that destroys neurons
Oxidative damage
BNDF deficient
reduced brain metaboliz
Abnormal calcium binding (calcium causes cell death)
DNA damage
found in many AD brain neurons
Timing of apoptotic mechanism versus AD timing
degeneration is not over DAYS but YEARS
AD upregulates bcl2
bcl2 protects against cell death due to beta amyloid

bcl2 keeps them alive; stops them from dying even though they are being damaged in serious way
DNA repair enzymes are higher in AD brains
help repair initial damage by apoptotic cell programmed deat
How to prevent AD?
mental and physical activity
Learning enhances what associated with AD
Brain derived neurotrophic factor expression in HIPPOCAMPUS
Increase in physical activity
Increase in hippocampal BNDF
Mice kept mentally and physically active produce
5x HIPPOCAMPAL neurons than when in SOLITARY CAGE
High fat and sugar diet
decrease brain hippocampal

So calorie restrict
Stress and AD
Stress decreases brain derived neurotrophic factor

Injected with stress hormone
Upregulate beta amyloid
Rats with low BDNF levels
poor learners
Cholesterol and STATINS
increase the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by gamma secretase

Processing leads to decrease beta-amyloid production
Antioxidants and AD
Vitamin E
slows process of alzeimers
If you have rheumatoid arthritis, you don't get AD
take high levels of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs: ibuprofin)
Inflammatory proteins in AD
Aspirin vs. NSAIDS
don't have protective effects
AD and COX effects
Not related
Prednisone (STEROIDAL- anti-inflammatory)
doesn't work on AD
Ibuprofin affects
gamma secretase (cuts and choose ab 40 or 42) to decrease amount of ab42
have higher rate of AD

Menopausal women vs. same aged men
Men still have estrogen
Hormone replacement theory
lower rate of cognitive decline
Factors that decrease
Cognitive/motor activity
Omega 3 oil
Fruits or fruit juices (antioxidants)

Increase - Stress
increases beta amyloid
Within 7 days

Beta amyloid ab40 and ab 42
Beta amyloid 42 increases
Dna damage