Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What observation helps distinguish between dementia and delirium?
Level of consciousness.
What are the characteristics of active delirium?
Hallucinations, Agitation
What are the characteristics of passive delirium?
Apathy, Withdrawal, Lack of Response
What are the 2 hallmark features of delirium?
Fluctuating alertness and inattention.
What is the hallmark feature of an Alzheimer's patient who is asked to draw a clock?
-Concrete or literal interpretation of the instructions***
(Patient put #'s on the clock in the opposite path, and the numbers are not aligned well along the margins of the circle)
Involved in differential diagnosis for delirium:
-A form of depression that produces prominent mental slowing and to some degree disexecutive trouble (i.e.difficulty with multi-tasking)
-Patients often complain of having early Alzheimer's Disease rather than a mood disturbance
-Neurologic testing and a good history will elicit some key features that will help in diagnosis.
Involved in differential diagnosis of delirium:
-Meds that the patient is taking
-Laboratory studies
Toxic and Metabolic Disturbances
Involved in the differential diagnosis of delirium:
CNS Infection
Involved in the differential diagnosis of delirium:
-uncovered when structural scan is done
-includes: stroke, hydrocephalus, or mass
Structural Damage
What types of effects may be observed when dementia drugs are given to a patient?
Iatrongenic effects-a drug induced delirium can be superimposed onto a dementia that already exists
What score on the MMSE correlates well with the presence of dementia?
24 out of 30
(But does not differentiate between dementia and delirium)
When the patient has only had Alzheimer's Diseae for a short period of time, is MRI or CT helpful?
Does Alzheimer's exhibit gradual or rapid progression?
What type of memory loss in Alzheimer's is the most prominent symptom?
recent, episodic memory
What is the most significant neurological finding in an Alzheimer's patient?
Cognitive Impairment.
In Alzheimer's imaging, during a later stage, what structures are reduced to 1/3 of their original volume?
hippocampus and mesiotemporal lobe
What functional imaging method is especially useful to help diagnose Alzheimer's in the beginning stages of the disease?
What are the vast majority of Alzheimer's patient's treated with, that results in no change or only a modest improvement?
cholinesterase inhibitor
What type of dementia occurs with multiple focal strokes and is easy to diagnose?
Vascular Dementia.
The following are characteristics of what disease?
1.Sudden onset, step-wise decline
2.focal motor, sensory,reflex changes
3.abnormal structural imaging (infarct, ischemia): MRI
4.Hachinski Ischemic Scale Score
Vascular Dementia
What type of dementia has the following characteristics:
1.More insidious
2.Insidiously progressive, not stepwise
3.MRI shows extensive confluent white matter abnormalities on T2 and FLAIR imaging
4.Autosomal dominant disease CADASIL produces this type of dementia
5.The metabolic syndrome (diabetes,HTN,hypercholesteremia, &smoking) will also produce this type of dementia
Atypical Vascular Dementia
What illness has the following symptoms?
3.Fluctuating Alertness/Attention
4.Visual Hallucinations
(Faster progression, shorter survival)
Dementia with Lewy Bodies
1.When do hallucinations occur in Alzheimer's Disease?
2.When do hallucinations occur in Dementia with Lewy Bodies?
1.During the later stages of the disease
2.During the early stages of the disease
What is the traid for normal pressure hydrocephalus?
1.Gait Disorder
2.Mild Dementia
3.Urinary Incontinence
What is normal pressure hydrocephalus caused by?
Problem with reabsorption of CSF and consequent fluid accumulation in adjacent white matter
What types dementias first present to the psychiatrist as "late adult schizophrenia"?
Frontal Lobe Dementias
Clincially, what is the most rapdily progressive dementia?
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
Startle myoclonus, ataxia, and EOM abnormalities are caused by what disease?
What tests are preferred over autopsy when diagnosing CJD? Why?
EEG and CSF, b/c autopsy could spread the prion particle.