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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Nerve cells that conduct an impulse
Cells that support, protect, nourish and service the needs of neurons
Glial cells
Do glial cells or neurons outnumber the other?
Glial cells outnumber neurons 5 to 1 or up to 10 to 1
What are the 3 distinguishing properties properties of neurons?
1. Specialization
2. Sensitivity
3. Permanent
Term for when a neuron carries a nerve impulse
Term for when a neuron lacks oxygen
Term used when losing a neuron means they are gone forever
A neuron is described as a cell body with what 3 things?
1. A large nucleus
2. A large nucleolus
3. Nissl granule - Tightly coiled endoplasmic reticulum
What does the term short processes mean when describing a neuron?
These are dendrites
What are dendrites?
Carry nerve impulse to cell body
What does the term one long process mean when describing a neuron?
An axon
What is an axon?
Carries impulse away from cell body
Term for gap between neuron connections
Transmission between 2 neurons or a neuron and its target organ is caused by the release of what?
The thicker the nerve the faster the ---?
The thickest neuron can't generate an impulse faster than ...
1 meter/second
What speeds up an impulse?
Bare areas along the myelin sheath
Nodes of Ranier
2 names for nerves that carry an impulse from the brain to the body
1. efferent
2. motor
2 names for nerves that carry an impulse from the body to the brain
1. afferent
2. sensory
What is a fatty substance and is described as white?
A neuron without meylin is what color?
What has a myelin sheath and makes up the white matter of the brain?
What makes up the gray matter of the brain?
Cell bodies and the short unmyelinated dendrites
What does glial mean?
What are glial cells?
Something that holds the brain together like glue
What has a star like appearance and is broken into fibrous and protoplasmic?
Found in white matter and forms supporting structure-major glial cell in blood brain barrier
Found in gray matter
Laying down of myeline and nerves in the central nervous system - makes myelin
Smalles of the glial cells, inactive in normal healthy brain, become active phagocyte cells in times of disease only
Makes cerebral spinal fluid
Ependymal cells
Name for the glial cell that makes myelin in the peripheral nervous system
Schwann cell
Part of the nervous system that is encased in bone
Central nervous system
The part outsie the bony covering of the nervous system
Peripheral nervous system
What are the 2 portions of the CNS?
Brain and spinal cord
How many pairs of nerves make up the PNS?
12 crainial pairs coming off the brain and 31 spinal nerves coming off the spinal cord
Large expanded part we think of as the brain
What covers up the Telencephalon
Area where brain gets smaller and is still part of the brain
Brain stem
4 parts of the brain stem
1. Upper - Mesencephalon (mid midbrain)
2. Middle - Pons, cerebelum and metencephalon
3. Lower - Medulla and mylencephalon
Name for the 2 halves of the telencephalon
Cerebral hemispheres
Groups of nerve cell bodies found inside the cerebral hemisphere
Bundles of axon found inside the cerebral hemisphere
Convulutions (little hills) found at the surface of the telencephalon
Gyri or gyrus
Shallow grooves separating the gyri that are part of the telencephalon
Sulcus or sulci
Deep grooves found in the telencephalon
Large areas of the telencephalon found in each cerebral hemisphere
What are the 4 lobes of the brain?
1. Frontal - under the frontal bone
2. Parietal - under the parietal bone
3. Temporal - under the temporal bone
4. Occipital - under the occipital
Separates left from right hemisphere
Median longitudinal fissure
A deeper groove or space that divides frontal lobe from parietal lobe
Central sulcus
Divides temporal lobe below from frontal and parietal lobes above
Lateral fissure
What is CN I ?
What is CN II ?
The outer crust of the cerebrum that is found when you cut a plane thru the cerebrum
Cerebral cortex or neo cortex
What color is the Cerebral cortex?
Connects the right side of the brain to the left side of the brain
Commissural fibers
Run anterior and posterior and connect parts of the brain on the same side
Associative fibers
Leaving the cerebral hemisphere and connecting to someplace else in the body via the internal capsule
Projection fibers
2nd division of the brain which can be seen in lower animals but is covered up in humans
Anything that has the word --- in it is part of the diencephalon
Another name for the midbrain
The pituitary and pineal gland are located ...
in the diencephalon
The pons and cerebellum make up what part of the brain?
What is below the metencephalon?
The medulla or the myelencephalon
The spinal cord runs from the foramen magnum to ...
L2 or L3
What acts as a highway that carries messages from body to brain and visa versa?
The spinal cord
What is the color of the center of the spinal cord if a cross section was cut?
What is the shape of the gray area of the spinal cord?
A butterfly
What is the name for the butterly shaped area of the spinal cord?
The gray H
What color is the material around the gray H ?
What is the name for the area around the gray H ?
What is the name for the posterior part of the gray H ?
What is the name for the anterior part of the gray H ?
What are the 3 sections of the columns?
1. ventral
2. lateral
3. dorsal
Located in the body and goes to the spinal cord (synapses in the gray H)
1st order neuron
Travels up to thalamus synapses w/ the 3rd order neuron and is found in the spinal cord
2nd order neuron
Goes to post central gyris
3rd oder neuron
Mixed nerve both sensory and motor
Spinal nerve
The sensory fibers from the body going to the brain
Dorsal root of the spinal nerve
Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the PNS
Dorsal root ganglion
Motor neuron fibers from the brain to the body
Ventral root
Unmyelinated cell bodies
Gray H of the spinal cord
Posterior or dorsal horns are motor or sensory?
Ventral horms are motor or sensory?
The white stuff inside the spinal cord
Myelinated nerve fibers
Name for the main sensory are of the brain
Post central gyris
Sensory neuron that enters the spine via the dorsal gray horn at the spianl level at which it enters the cord
1st sensory organ
What moves superiorly up the spinal cord in the lateral column on the opposite side of the cord to side of the body from which the 1st neuron started?
The axon of the 2nd neuron
The ascending neuron reaches the diencephalon of the brain, (thalamus) and synapses with what?
3rd neuron
What runs to the postcentral gyrus?
The 3rd neuron