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79 Cards in this Set

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The largest single component of the human brain - probably where we think
Cerebrum
Known as "in-between" brain - located deep inside the cerebrum - in humans it is covered
Diencephalon
Where the brain gets smaller
Brainstem
Most upper part of the brainstem
Midbrain
The middle part of the brainstem - front
Pons
The middle part of the brainstem - back
Cerebellum
The most inferior part of the brain stem
Medulla oblongata
The name for everything that is enclosed in the skull - even the brainstem is part of this
The brain
The name for everything that is enclose in the bony spine
The spinal cord
The nerves coming off the bony spine that take the name of the part of the spoine in which they originate
Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal
The name for the lordodic curve for C1 - C7
Cervical curve
The cervical curve gives off which spinal nerves?
C1 - C8
It has 1 more nerve
The name for the kyphotic curve T1 - T12
Thoracic curve
The thoracic curve gives off which spinal nerves?
T1-T12
The name for the lordodic curve for L1-L5
Lumbar curve
The lumbar curve gives off which spinal nerves?
L1-L5
The name for the kyphotic curve S1-S5
Sacral curve
The sacral curve gives off which nerves?
S1 - S5 as well as off the coxxygeal nerve 1
The name for the part of the nervous system encased in bone (skull and bony spine)
The central nervous system
The name for the nerves coming off the central nervous system
The peripheral nervous system
How many cranial nerves?
12 pair coming off the brain
How many spinal nerves?
31 pair coming off the spinal cord
What are the 31 spinal nerves?
8 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
1 coccygeal
Which nerves exit above their corresponding bone?
C1-C7
Where does C8 exit?
C8 exits below C7bone
Where do the thoracic nerves exit?
They exit below their named vertebrae
Where do the lumbar nerves exit?
They exit below their named vertebrae
Where do the sacral nerves exit?
They exit below their corresponding sacral levels through their anterior and posterior foreman.
Where does the 5th sacral nerve exit?
The 5th sacaral nerve comes out through the sacral hiatus
Where does the coccygeal nerve exit?
Through the sacral hiatus
What 2 things come from ectoderm?
The skin and the nervous system
The earliest structures in the nervous system - develops from the ectoderm and forms a hollow tube
The neural tube
The neural tube expands into how many primary vesicles?
3
What are the 3 primary vesicles of the neural tube?
1. Forebrain/prosencephalon
2. Midbrain/Mesencephalon (middle)
3. Hindbrain/Rhombencephalon (most distal expansion)
What part of the brain is referenced when speaking of the cranial or superior portion?
The front of the brain
What part of the brain is reference when speaking of the cautal or inferior portion?
The back of the brain
The telencephalon, cerebral hemispheres and the diencephalon are part of what?
The prosencephalon or the front of the brain
The most cranial/superior part of the prosencephalon the turns into cerebrum
Telencephalon
The lateral/paired right and left regions of the prosencephalon
The cerebral hemispheres
The area of the procencephalon known as the higer brain in many lower organisms also known as in-between brain
Diencephalon
Things with the word thalamus in the name belong to what?
Diencephalon
This does the least changing of any of the 3 vesicles
Mesencephalon
The metencephalon, the pons and the cerebellum are part of what?
Rhombencephalon
Name for the upper portion of the rhombencephalong that gives rise to the pons
Metenchapholon
Part of the rhombencephalon that lies in front
Pons
Part of the rhombencephalon that lies behind
Cerebellum
Lower portion of the rhombencephalon that turns into the medulla
Myelencephalon
The rest of the neural tube turns into what?
The spinal cord
Plasma membrane or cell membrane is positive or negative on the outside surface and positive or negative on the inside surface?
Positive on the outside and negative on the inside
What are the major ions involved in the body?
Na and K - Sodium and Potassium
Is Sodium and Potassium negative or positive?
Positively charged
Name for the physiological process in which every cell keeps outer positive relative to the inner negative, keeping sodium inside and potassium outside
The sodium-potassium pump
Describes the positive and negative relation
Polarization
What is another name for resting membrane potential?
Potential energy
Resting membrane potential = what mV?
-80mV
When something is done to a cell membrane to make the charges switch
Depolarization
Spots where negative and positive switches and can move down the lenght of a nerve
Action potential
Total of action potentials from beginning to end - a series of action potentials
Nerve impulse
Becomes repolarized right after it is depolarized
Repolarization
Period between impulses when nerve can't be stimulated
Refractory period
Describe the domino analogy of a nerve impulse
This is similar to dominoes falling only they go back up after they fall
What turns on a nerve impulse?
Anything that momentarily disrupts the Sodium Potassium pump
How fast does a nerve impulse travel?
1 meter per second
What influences the speed of a nerve impulse?
The thickness of the axon
Name for the fatty wrapping around a neuron (nerve) - the outer covering of a nerve that is lipid
Myelin sheath
Name for the bare areas in the myelin sheath where myelin is missing
The Nodes of Ranvier
Name for when action potentials jump from node to node to node
Salutatory conduction
Name for axons with myelin covering
White matter
Name for axons without myelin sheath made up of mostly cells and dendrytes - nerve touches nerve - outer crust of the brain
Gray matter
Name for when an axon is stimulating a dendrite
Axodendritic
Name for when an axon is stimulating or touching the cell body
Axosomatic
Name for when an axon is in contact with another axon
Axoaxonic
Name for the where 1 nerve cell comes in contact and stiumulates something
Synapse
The space in the synapse where nothing is happening
Synaptic cleft
Name for when 1 nerve releases to stimulate another nerve - chemical
Neurotransmitter
Name for plasma membrane on the 1st neuron
Presynaptic membrane
Name for little globs containing neurotransmitters
Presynaptic vesicles
Name for the 2nd neuron that receives neurotransmitters
Postsynaptic membrane
Name for things that want to depolarize but can't similar to yin and yang
Neuromodulators