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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The CNS consists of:
Brain & spine
The PNS consists of:
12 pairs of Cranial Nerves

31 pairs of Spinal Nerves
Neuron is:
the basic functional unit of the Nervous system.
A cell body consists of:
Nucleus
Lipid bilayer (2 layers of fat)
Cytoplasm
Myelin
white, fat & insulate the nerves.
Diseases of Myelin:
Multiple Schlerosis
Problems with axons is a sign of
dysarthria and aphasia
Synapses
is the way neurons communicate to other neurons.
Parts of the Synapses:
* Telodendria
* Synaptic Knob
* Synaptic Cleft
* Dendrites
Anterior
Front
Posterior
toward the back
Superior
above
Inferior
below
Rostral
near mouth
Medial
toward the middle
lateral
further from the median plane
Ventral
toward the belly
dorsal
toward the back
Cortical divisions:
*Gyrus
*Sulcus aka fissure
The brain is normally housed in the part of the bony skull called
Cranium
Another word for brain is:
Encephalon
The Human cerebrum includes 3 parts:
* Cerebral Hemispheres
* Basal Ganglia
* Limbic lobe
the cerebral Hemispheres are connected by a mass of white matter called:
corpus callosum
Diencephalon includes:
*thalamus
*hypothalamus
*the 3rd ventrical
*epithalamus
Diecephalon is:
the part of the forebrain between the cerebral hemispheres and the midbrain.
what are the 4 lobes of the brain?
* Frontal Lobe
* Parietal Lobe
* Temporal Lobe
* Occipital Lobe
Autonomic Nervous System has 3 divisions
1. Enteric
2. Sympathetic
3. Parasympathetic
Autonomic Nervous System

Enteric
Gastrointestinal tract
**If you see this on chart - tube fed
Directly effects swallowing
Deglutition and digestion of food
Autonomic Nervous System

Sympathetic
Body's alerting system, aka "fight or flight".

Causes heart rate, constrictions of the peripheral blood vessels, raising blood pressure, and redistributing the blood so that i leaves the skin and intestines to be used in the brain , heart and muscles.
Autonomic Nervous System

Parsympathetic
Calming effect on bodily function.

it serves to conserve and restore energy by slowing the heart rate, increased salivation and increased secretion of the glands of the GI tact.
Autonomic Nervous System is important to SLP's because
a patients digestive system and swallowing.

Important for communication.
Action Potentials
an electrical charge.
Weirnicke Area
# 22
Heschl's gyrus forms the:
primary auditory cortex, representing the cortical center for hearing in each hemisphere.
Frontal Lobe "motor strip"
* Motor Functions
* Higher Order Functions
* Planning
* Reasoning
* Judgement
* Impulse Control
* Memory
Prominent gyrus for the Frontal Lobe is
precentral gyrus
Broca's area are #'s
44 and 45
Angular gyrus is number
39
Anomia
word-finding problems
Temporal Lobe consists of
Wernicke's area, Heschl's gyrus, and Island of Reil
Temporal Lobe
auditory perception and is home to the primary auditory cortex. It is also important for the processing of semantics in both speech and vision. The temporal lobe contains the hippocampus and plays a key role in the formation of long-term memory.
Occipital Lobe consists of the :
perisylvian zone
Occipital Lobe
The primary visual cortex is Brodmann area 17
ANS works with the endocrine system to maintain _______
the Endocrine system
Graded Potential
Time related /space related.
Synpases consists of
* Presynaptic Terminal / bouton
* Synaptic Cleft
* Post Synaptic Terminal
Neurtransmitters
Chemical, the base for actions.
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials
an electrical change in the membrane of a post synaptic neuron caused by binding of an excitatory neurotransmitter from a presynaptic cell to a postsynaptic receptor
Depolarization
loss of the difference in charge between the inside and outside of the plasma membrane of a muscle or nerve cell caused by a change in permeability and migration of sodium ions to the interior.
Dura Mater
Brain covered with the menegies, to protect the brain and the spinal cord.
the names of the folds of the menegies
Falx Cerebri
Tentorium cerebelli
diaphragma sella
3 layers of the menegies + the space
Dura Mater
Subdural space
Arachnoid
Subarachnoid space
Pia Mater
Ventricular system has 4 cavities
1 ventrical
2nd ventricle
3 ventrical
4th ventrical
Name and describe the parts of a cell:
Nucleus

Lipid Bilayer: 2 fats, do not dissolve in H2O

Cytoplasm: maintains metabolic balance
escribe myelin and its importance:

Myelin in the CNS:
Myelin in the PNS:
CNS: Oligodendrites
PNS: Schwann cells or Nerolemma

Fat cells wrapped around the axons.

Important: makes it go faster, increases the speed, insulates the axons and increases the speed of the transmission of impulses.

***Myeline increases as Language develops. Due to this, it gives us the idea that the brain can regenerate.



Disease: MS. MS myelin deteriorates.