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25 Cards in this Set

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Homeostasis
The state of Dynamic Equilibrium of the body's internal environment.
Temp, pH, electrolytes, glucose, H2O levels, Blood Pressure
Internal Environment
The Fluid Enviornment
The fluid that bathes the cells of the body
Blood Plasma, Tissue Fluid, Lymph
Tissue Fluid
Intercellular or Interstitial
External Enviornment
Air & Gasses outside the body
Stimulus
- A change in the internal or external environment
Receptor
- A structure in the body that senses the change and converts it into a nerve impulse
- Detects the Stimuli
Sensory Neurons
Carry the impulse to the CNS (central nervous system)
Integration Center
area of the brain/spinal cord that decided what the response to the stimulus should be
Motor Neuron
CARRIES the nerve/impulse out of the integration center to the EFFECTOR. (THE WIRE)
Effector
The structure that does the response indicated by the integration center.
Types of Effectors
Skeletal MM
Cardiac MM
Smooth MM
Glands
Central Nervous System
CNS
Dorsal Cavity
Sensory & Motor & Integration (decision)
Brain & Spinal Cord
Brain
CNS
Cranial Cavity
Reflexes
Highest forms of integration (thinking, planning, math)
Spinal Cord
CNS
Vertebral Canal
Reflexes
Simplest form of integration
Peripheral Nervous System
PNS
Location
Outside the Dorsal Cavity
Sensory and Motor only
Connects the CNS to the Sensory Receptors & Effectors
PNS
Location
Part IN - Part OUT
31 Spinal Nerves
12 Cranial Nerves
Autonomic Pathways to Organs
Sensory & Motor
Nerve
A bundle of nerve cells (neurons)
Spinal Nerves
Location
31 Pairs of Nerves that emerge from spinal cord through the interveterbral foramen between adjacent vertebrae
Cranial Nerves
Location
12 pairs of nerves that merge diretly off the brain and travel through foramina in the skull
Sensory/Afferent
Carry Towards
Neurons in the spinal & cranial nerves that innervate (attach) to the sensory receptors
Incoming Sensory Pathways
General Senses
Very Simple Receptors
Touch, Temp, Pressure, Pain, Stretch, Chemical & Proprioceptive
All Over Body Skin, MM Jints (somatic) Internal Organs & BV (visceral). Innervated by Spinal & Cranial Nerves
Special Senses
The 5 Senses
Complex Receptors (eyeball or ear)
vision, audition, olfaction, gustation, equilibrium
Located in the head
Innervated by Cranial Nerves
Somatic (vision, hearing, equilibrium)
Visceral (gustation & olfaction)
Motor
Efferent
Carry Away - Outgoing Pathways
Made of the neurons that innervate the effectors (skeletal, cardiac, smooth mm) & glands
Somatic Motor
Innervate Skeletal MM cells
Voluntary
ONE PNS Neuron bet Brain/Spinal Cord & Effector
Very Fast
Autonomic Motor
Innervate Cardiac, smooth mm & glands
INvoluntary
TWO PNS Neurons between Brain/Spinal Cord & Effector