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141 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The CNS consists of the ___ and ___.
brain, spinal cord
What is the primary cell of the neurological system?
neuron
What is a neuron's primary food?
glucose
What cells scan the environment, integrate information, and initiate responses to maintain body's homeostasis?
neurons
Neuroglial cells are part of what system?
CNS
Schwann cells are part of what system?
PNS
Name three types of neurons.
sensory, associated, motor
The region between adjacent neurons.
synapse
Space between the neurons.
synaptic cleft
What neuron is chemical releasing?
presynaptic neuron
What neuron is responsible for picking up chemicals and taking them away from the synapse?
postsynaptic neuron
A chemical that must be synthesized in the neuron, released into the synaptic cleft, and bind to a receptor site on the postsynaptic membrane of another neuron.
neurotransmitter
What does Zoloft do to serotonin levels?
increases levels
True or False: Neurotransmitters can move back and forth between presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons.
False: Neurotransmitters only move in one direction.
What neurotransmitter's effect is excitatory or inhibitory? (not a monoamine)
acetylcholine
What monoamine neurotransmitter's effect is excitatory or inhibitory?
norepinephrine
What two monoamines have a generally inhibitory effect?
serotonin and histamine
What is dopamine's effect?
generally excitatory
What amino acid neurotransmitter is responsible for the majority of postsynaptic inhibition in the brain?
GABA
Glycine is responsible for most postsynaptic inhibition in the ______.
spinal cord
What effect do glutamate and aspartate have?
excitatory
Substance P has what kind of effect?
generally excitatory
What two neuropeptides generally have an inhibitory effect?
endorphins and enkephalins
What part of the brain has contralateral control (cerebral impulses control function on the opposite side of the body)?
forebrain
What lobe of the brain controls goal oriented behavior, short term or recall memory, emotional, and expressive functions?
frontal lobe
What part of the brain is the major area of somatic input and sensory/motor function?
parietal lobe
What lobe of the brain controls primary visual and auditory cortexes?
occipital lobe
What area of the brain is responsible for reception and interpretation of speech-dysfunction and may cause receptive aphasia or dysphagia?
Werniche Area
What part of the brain houses the corpus callosum?
insula
What part of the brain connects the two cerebral hemispheres and is essential in coordination of activity between the two hemispheres?
corpus collosum
What is cut in epileptic patients unresponsive to all other treatments?
corpus collosum
What is the major intergrating center for afferent impulses going to the cerebral cortex?
thalamus
What is responsible for maintenance of constant internal environment, implementation of behavioral patterns, control center for ANS function, and regulation of emotional expression?
hypothalamus
What makes up the hindbrain?
brain stem
What is responsible for balance, posture, and motor coordination?
cerebellum
How is the function of the cerebellum different from that of the cerebral cortex?
cerebellum is ipsilateral (right side of cerebellum affected, right side of body affected)
What controls respiration and is the location of cranial nerves V-VIII?
pons
What controls reflex activities (HR, BP, coughing, sneezing, etc) and is the location of cranial nerves IX-XII?
medulla oblongata
Name the three meninges.
dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
The subdural space lies between what two meninges?
dura and arachnoid
A clear, colorless fluid that circulates within the ventricles and spaces of the brain.
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
What describes cellular structures that selectively inhibit certain potentially harmful substances in the blood from entering the brain or CSF?
blood-brain barrier
What two opposing systems make up the ANS?
sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
What system consists of the cranial and spinal nerves?
PNS
What system in the PNS is voluntary?
somatic system
What pathways take information to the CNS?
afferent pathways
What pathways send information from the CNS to the rest of the body?
efferent pathways
What type of neurons have a myelin sheath that serves as an insulator for nerve impulses?
myelinated neurons
Sensory neurons are effective in what pathway?
afferent pathway
What type of neurons send information between neurons?
interneurons (associational)
What type of neurons send information to the body to cause an action?
motor neurons
Areas of the body that the nerve intervates.
Dermatones
What three systems interact to cause pain?
sensory, motivational, cognitive
What pain system is responsive to nerve function and has a specific intensity and location?
sensory/discriminative
What pain system is active with a learned cultural response to pain?
motivational/affective
What pain system involves an individual's intellectual ability to process pain?
cognitive/evauative
What kind of pain has a known physical cause?
somatogenic pain
What kind of pain has no known physical cause?
psychogenic pain
Superficial, acute pain.
somatic pain
Deep, acute pain.
visceral pain
Acute pain experienced in location different from area of injury.
referred pain
Pain that lasts more than six months; constant or intermittant.
chronic pain
The point at which pain is perceived.
pain threshold
Duration of time a person will endure pain before taking action.
pain tolerance
Where are pain receptors found?
skin, mucous membranes, lining of body cavities, deep tissue
What controls body temperature?
hypothalamus
What two age groups have less hypothalamic control and greater temperature variations?
infants and the elderly
What is the "resetting" of the hypothalamus to a higher temp in response to pyrogens?
fever
Pyrogens work by releasing ____.
prostaglandins
What are the benefits of fever?
kills pathogens, decreases serum zinc,iron and copper (needed for bacterial replication), prevents viral repliation, facilitates transport of lymphocytes, enhances phagocytosis
What is an active, multiphase process controlled by the RAS (reticular activating system)?
sleep
Dreams occurs during what sleep cycle?
REM (rapid eye movement)
Inability to fall asleep due to stress, illness or drugs.
insomnia
Chronic sleep disorder that inhibits air way from tongue and palate obstruction.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)
Somnoabulism
sleep walking
vivid, realistic dreams
night terrors
bed wetting
enuresis
disconjugate gaze; muscle weakness in one eye
strabismus
decrease in visual acuity for unknown reason
amblyopia
jerking of eye
nystagmus
circumscribed defect; blind spot in central vision
scotoma
occurs with aging; cornea turns cloudy or yellow with glazed over appearance
cataract
near-sightedness
myopia
far-sightedness
hyperopia
light falls to one side of eye
astigmatism
normal intraocular pressure (IOP)
12-20 mm Hg
Obstruction to the flow of the aqueous fluid leads to increased IOP and _____.
glaucoma
What vision does glaucoma impair?
central and peripheral vision
Alteration in level of consciousness or arousal.
coma
What type of death occurs when the basic functions of life are gone?
brain death (brain stem death)
What type of death occurs when damage is permanent and irreversible?
cerebral death
Inability to recognize stiumulus?
agnosia
Inability to recognize objects that should be familiar.
tactile agnosia
Difficulty recognizing familiar places.
spatial agnosia
Inability to write.
agraphia agnosia
state of acute confusion
delirium
state of chronic confusion
dementia
normal intracranial pressure
5-15 mm Hg or 60-180 cm H2O
What range on the Glascow Coma Scale is considered a mild coma?
13-15
What range on the Glascow Coma Scale is considered a moderate coma?
9-12
What range on the Glascow Coma Scale is considered a severe coma?
8 or less
decreased muscle tone
hypotonia
increased muscle tone
hypertonia
Which crainial nerve is purely sensory; carries impulses for sense of smell.
I. Olfactory
What is the number and function of the Optic nerve?
II. Purely sensory; carries impulses for vision
Crainial nerve III. Motor impulses direct eye movement.
Oculomotor
Which crainial nerve has motor function for superior oblique muscle of the eye?
IV. Trochlear
What is the number and function of the Trigeminal nerve?
V. Both motor and sensory for face
What is the number and function of the Abducens nerve?
VI. Motor function that sends impulses from eye muscles to brain
What nerve has motor function of movements of the face and sensory function for taste?
VII. Facial
What nerve has a sensory function for hearing and equilibrium?
VIII. Vestibulocochlear (acoustic)
What is the number and function of the Glossopharyngeal nerve?
IX. Mixed function:
1) motor function of throat and salivary glands
2) sensory function for parynx, taste buds, and carotid artery pressure receptors
What nerve has sensory and motor function of the pharynx?
X. Vagus
What nerve has motor function of the back muscles, soft palate, and throat?
XI. Spinal Accessory
What is the number and function of the Hypoglossal nerve?
XII. Motor function of tongue.
paresis or plegia (decrease in movement)
hypokinesia
increase in movements
hyperkinesia
lack of or very slow movements
akinesia/bradykinesia
Trauma that has stretched the muscles of the neck.
whiplash
Alterations of the intervertebral disk tissue.
DDD (degenerative disc disease)
Alterations of the vertebra.
DJD (degenerative joint disease)
Structural defect of the spine involving the lamina or neural arch of the vertebra.
spondylolysis
This condition occurs when a vertebra slides forward in relation to the vertebra below.
spondylolistesis
Narrowing of the spinal collum.
spinal stenosis
A protrusion of part of the disk through a tear in the posterior rim of the vertebra.
herniated intervertebral disk
Nerve irritation.
sciatica
What kind of stroke occurs when plaque breaks away from the vessel causing occlusion and then ischemia to the brain?
thrombotic strokes
Development of or incomplete stroke.
stroke-in-evolution
What kind of stroke causes bleeding into the brain?
hemorrhagic stroke
Infection of the meninges.
meningitis
What manifestations are associated with meningitis?
high fever, stiff neck, headache
Localized collections of pus within the brain.
brain abscesses
Loss of ability to think rapidly and clearly; impaired judgement and decision making
confusion
Beginning loss of consciousness; lost last is recognition of self
disorientation
Limited spontaneous movement or speech; easy arousal with normal speech or touch; may or may not be oriented to time, place or person
lethargy
Mild to moderate reduction in arousal with limited response to the enviornment; falls asleep unless stimulated verbally or tactilely; answers questions with minimum response
obtundation
A condition of deep sleep or unresponsiveness from which the person may be aroused or caused to open eyes only by vigorous and repeated stiumulation; response is often withdrawal or grabbing at stiumulus
stupor
No verbal response to the external environment or to any stiumuli, noxious stiumuli such as deep pain or suctioning do not yeild motor movement
coma
Associated with purposeful movement on stimulation
light coma
Associated with nonpurposeful movement only on stiumulation
coma
Associated with unresponsiveness or no response to any stimulus
deep coma