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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
List the 12 cranial nerves, in order:
I. Olfactory
II. Optic
III. Oculomotor
IV. Trochlear
V. Trigeminal
VI. Abducens
VII. Facial
VIII. Auditory
IX. Glossopharyngeal
X. Vagus
XI. Accessory
XII. Hypoglossal
What is/are the major function(s) of the Olfactory nerve?
Smell
What is/are the major function(s) of the Optic nerve?
Vision
What is/are the major function(s) of the Trochlear nerve?
Innervates superior oblique;
Turns eye downward and laterally
What is/are the major function(s) of the Trigeminal nerve?
Chewing;
Pain & touch sensations for the face and mouth
What is/are the major function(s) of the Abducens nerve?
Turns eye laterally
What is/are the major function(s) of the Facial nerve?
Controls most facial expressions;
Controls secretion of tears/saliva;
Taste sensation
What is/are the major function(s) of the Auditory nerve?
Hearing;
Equilibrium sensation
What is/are the major function(s) of the Glossopharyngeal nerve?
Taste sensation;
Senses carotid blood pressure
What is/are the major function(s) of the Vagus nerve?
Senses aortic blood pressure;
Slows heart rate;
Stimulates digestive organs;
Taste sensation
What is/are the major function(s) of the Accessory nerve?
Controls traezius & sternocleidomastoid muscles;
Controls swallowing movements
What is/are the major function(s) of the Hypoglossal nerve?
Controls tongue movements
What is/are the major function(s) of the Oculomotor nerve?
Eyelid & eyeball movement
What is another name for the Auditory nerve?
Vestibulocochlear Nerve
List the factors that affect nerve transmission:
* Distance
* Lack of oxygen
* Effects of hypnotics
* Anesthetics
* pH of extra-cellular fluid
* Alkalosis
* Certain drugs
How does acidosis of the extra-cellular fluid affect nerve transmission?
Acidosis depresses nerve activity
How does alkalosis affect nerve transmission?
Alkalosis excites nerve cells
List drugs that can increase nerve activity:
* Caffeine
* Theophylline
* Theobromine
Where is Theophylline commonly found?
In tea and asthma drugs
Where is Theobromine commonly found?
In cocoa
What is the major function of the peripheral nervous system?
Carries information to and from the CNS
List the structures that protect the brain and spinal cord:
* Skull
* Vertebrae
* Meninges
* CSF
What produces/drains the CSF?
The meninges
What circulates in and around the brain to function as a shock absorber?
CSF
Which arteries make up the brain's arterial blood supply?
* Internal carotids
* Vertebral artery
* Basilar artery
Which veins make up the brain's venous blood supply?
The jugular veins
What are the major functions of the medulla?
* Regulating blood pressure
* Breathing
* Relaying information from the sense organs
What are the major functions of the Pons?
* Relaying movement and position information from the cerebellum to the cortex
* Also involved in breathing, taste and sleep
What are the major functions of the midbrain?
* Links the various sections of the brain involved in motor functions, eye movements, & auditory control
What is the substantia nigra?
A portion of the midbrain that is involved in voluntary movements
When the substantia nigra does not function, what is the result?
The "tremored" movements of Parkinson's disease
What are the major functions of the thalamus?
*Relays incoming sensory pathways to appropriate areas of the cortex
*Determines which sensory information actually reaches consciousness
*Participates in motor-information exchange between the cerebellum, basal ganglia & cortex
What are the major functions of the hypothalamus?
*Controls hormonal secretions from the pituitary
*Also involved in almost all aspects of behavior, including biological clock (circadian rhythms)
What are the major functions of the frontal lobe?
*Voluntary skeletal movement
*Repetitive movement
What is the major function of the parietal lobe?
Processes sensory data
What is the major function of the occipital lobe?
Interprets visual data
What are the major functions of the temporal lobe?
*Perception/interpretation of sounds
*Integration of taste/smell/balance
What is the major function of the limbic system?
Mediates behavior patterns for survival
What are the major functions of the cerebellum?
*Aids in integration of voluntary movement
*Processes sensory information
*Uses sensory data for reflex control (muscle tone, equilibrium, posture)
What are the major functions of the basal ganglia?
*Extrapyramidal pathway
*Processing station between notor cortex/upper brainstem
*Gross intentional movement without conscious thought
List the parts of the brainstem:
*Medulla oblongata
*Midbrain
*Pons
*Diencephalon
What are the major functions of the brainstem?
*Pathway between cerebral cortex and spinal cord
*Controls many involuntary movements
What are the major functions of the 12 cranial nerves?
*Motor
*Sensory
*Parasympathetic
When does major brain growth and myelinization occur?
In the first year of life
What reflexes are normally present in the newborn?
Primitive reflexes
Brain growth continues until what age?
12-15 years
What hormonal changes take place in a pregnant woman with regards to the neurologic system?
Hypothalamic-pituitary neurohormonal changes
What are the common effects of the hypothalamic-pituitary neurohormonal changes in a pregnant woman?
*Headaches
*Numbness/tingling of hands
*No rest after sleep
*Inability to sleep
List the common neurologic changes experienced by an older adult:
*Changes are physiologic rather than anatomic
*Cerebral neurons decrease
*Velocity of nerve impulse conduction declines
What takes place as a result of the decline in velocity of nerve impulse conduction in older adults?
*Slowed response time
*Diminished touch/pain perception
What equipment will you use for a neurological assessment?
*Penlight
*Tongue blades
*Sterile needles
*Tuning forks
*Familiar objects
*Cotton wisp
*Monofilament
*Reflex hammer
*Vials of aromatic substances
*Vials of solutions
*Test tubes of hot/cold water
*Denver II