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51 Cards in this Set

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Frontal Lobe
Anterior portion of cortex

Bounded posterially by central fissure (Rolando) (ends at the central sulcus)

Associated with motor and movement
Parietal Lobe
Anterior boundary = central fissure
Roof of the brain (most superior portion) – associated with touch or sensation
Includes postcentral gyrus (SENSORY STRIP)
Occipital Lobe
Most posterior portion of brain – associated with vision
"occiput" means back of the head
Temporal Lobe
Dorsal (relating to or situated on the back of the body) boundary = lateral fissure (Sylvian fissure)

Posterior “bottom” portion of brain (sides/behind ears) – associated with hearing/ auditory function
Meninges
Three membranes that enclose the CNS
Dura mater (outermost)
Arachnoid (inner/middle membrane - with subarachnoid space)
Pia mater (on surface of brain)
PNS
Cranial nerves 12 pairs (head & neck)
Spinal nerves 31 pairs (trunk & limbs)
CNS
1. Spinal cord
2. Brain stem
3. Cerebellum
4. Diencephalon
5. Cerebrum (cerebrum + diencephalon = brain)
Landmarks in brain tissue
Brain Tissue: gyrus (or gyri - RIDGES), sulcus (or sulci - INDENTATIONS) and fissure (deep sulci)
Brain covering
Gray matter called CEREBRAL CORTEX
Brain stem
Midbrain (upper)
Pons
Medulla
Overall: serves as a conduit for all motor output from the CNS to the peripheral nervous system and for all sensory input from the PNS to the CNS
Landmarks in brain tissue
Transverse fissure,
Corpus callosum,
Central sulcus (F of R)
Lateral sulcus (F of S)
Cerebellum
Responsible for controlling the rate, force, direction, and amplitude of volitional movements
Spinal cord neurons
Motor neurons in the spinal cord are located in the ANTERIOR horns (central grey matter)
Sensory neurons are located in the posterior horns
Ventricles
Four cavities filled with CSF deep w/i brain
2 - Lateral ventricles
Third Ventricle
Fourth ventricle (narrow tube)
Choriod plexus
Spongy mass of vascular tissue that is primary producer of CSF
Diencephalon
Deep in the brain, at the top of the brain stem
Contains the thalamus and the basal ganglia
Thalamus
Pair of egg shaped nuclei on each side of 3rd ventricle
Major relay center for motor info from motor cortex & for sensory info to sensory cortex
Many sensory pathways synapse at the thalamus
Role in maintaining consciousness, alertness & attention
Basal ganglia
Caudate Nucleus
Putamen
Globus pallidus
Subthalamic nucleus and Substantia nigra - often lumped together to form the lenticular nucleus
Lenticular nucleus is separated fromt he caudate nucleus by internal capsule
Basal ganglia control the major muscle groups in trunk and limbs
Transverse fissure
separates the cerebral cortex from the cerebellum
Corpus Callosum
white matter that serves as an important pathway between the 2 hemispheres
Central Sulcus or Fissure of Rolando
divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe
Lateral Sulcus or Fissure of Sylvius
divides the temporal from the frontal/parietal lobes
Cortical tissue 3 types
1. Primary areas: control basic sensory or motor functioning, e.g., seeing something
2. Secondary (Association) areas: interpret information – NOT basic function – e.g., recognition that what you see is a cat. Secondary areas are always located next to the primary areas they are assisting
3. Tertiary areas: specialized areas, may be limited to humans; deal with abstract ideas, not associated with only one area – that is, not modality specific – e.g., pre-frontal works with all
Flechsig’s Rule
Primary areas of the brain do not interconnect with each other; they are isolated or cut-off from other areas of the brain – thus, called primary areas
Primary visual cortex
Area 17, or Calcarine Fissure (occipital lobe)
Visual association
Areas 18 & 19
Post Central gyrus
Primary sensory (or somatosensory) cortex; area 312 (parietal)
Sensory association area
Areas 5 & 7 (parietal)
Angular gyrus
Tertiary (Super Secondary); Area 39 (parietal)
Herschel’s gyrus
Primary auditory, Area 41
Auditory association
Weirincke’s area; Area 22
Precentral gyrus
Primary motor; Area 4 (frontal lobe)
Motor Association
Broca's Area; Nos. 44, 45 (oral motor - frontal lobe)
Pre-frontal region
Tertiary motor; Areas 9 – 12
Arcuate fasciculus
Connects regions in the temporarly lobes with regions in the frontal lobes; is important for some neurophysiologic explanations of language
Blood supply to brain: overview
Common CA (TR up neck); splits into Internal CA & External CA;
Internal CA goes to brain and joins the Circle of Willis
Circle of Willis
Joining of the ACA, PCA and Anterior Communicating, and Posterior Communicating arteries
ACA
Supply anterior & mesial portions of the right & left hemispheres
MCA
Supply lateral portions of right & left hemispheres
Types of CVAs - overview
Ischemic (Embolic, Thrombolic & Hypoperfusion)
hemorrhagic
Embolic CVAs
Fragment of blood clot or other material that travels in a vlood vessel until it obstructs blood flow
Causes OCCLUSIVE CVA
Thrombolic CVAs
Fixed clot in a blood vessel that is usually the result of buildup of plaque on the vessel wall
Causes OCCLUSIVE CVA
Hypoperfusion
Insufficient blood volume
Generalized damage
Hemorrhagic CVAs
bleeding int ot he cranium; hematoma forms and destroys brain tissue
Caused by: aneurysms, AV malformation
Class definition of Aphasia
An acquired disorder which affects language modalities (expressing, and/or comprehending language speaking, writing, gestures, reading, & auditory comprehension) to varying degrees; acquired after speech/language system is intact
Aphasia statistics
Incidence: new onset annually 80,000
Prevalence: currently have condition over 1 million
Causes of Aphasia
1) Stroke (700k people per year - but not all have Aphasia)
2) TBI
3) Dementia
4) Brain tumors (if in Lt Hemi)
Stroke risk factors - can't change
1) Aging
2) Heredity (heart disease, race)
3) Gender
Stroke risk factors - can change
Smoking
High BP
High cholesterol
Physical inactivity
Diabetes
Obesity
TIAs
Warning signs of CVAs
Sudden weakness or numbness of face, arm or leg - on one side
Sudden dimness or loss of vision, esp. in one eye
Loss of or diff understanding speech or diff. speaking
Sudden, severe headaches
unexplained dizziness, sudden falls
FAST
F - Face (smile)
A - Arms (raise both arms)
S - Speech (simple sentence)
T - Time - very important