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118 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
collection of cell bodies in PNS
ganglia
supportative cells that dont play a role in neural communication
glial cells
star shaped cells in brain and spinal cord that maintain integrity of neural env
astrocytes
myelin sheath in CNS
oligodendrocytes
myelin sheath in PNS
schawnn cells
chromaffin cells, mediates catecholamine fxn
adrenal medulla
neural tube develops into
forebrain
midbrain
hindbrain
telencephalon
cerebral cortex
diencephalon
thalamus
hypothalamus
retina - optic cup
mescencephalon
midbrain
midbrain
superior and inferior colliculus
myelencephalon
medulla
metencephalon
pons
inner neural tube
becomes ventricles
ventricle located in telencephalon
lateral
ventricle located in diencephalon
3
connects lateral and 3 ventricle
interventricula foramen
ventricle btw metencephalon (pons) and myelencephalon (medulla)
4
connect 3 and 4 ventricles
cerebral aqueduct
retina comes from
diencephalon
divisions of PNS
sensory and motor
divisions of motor branch of PNS
somatic
autonomic
collection of cell bodies in PNS
ganglia
collection of axons in PNS
nerves
somatic motor division of PNS innervates
vol skeletal muscle
innervates autonomic ganglia
peripheral motor neurons
branches of autonomic motor nervous system
parasympathetic
sympathetic
ganglia in verterbral col
sympathetic
ganglia in effector organs
parasympathetic
collection of neurons in CNS; like gangli
nuclei
high level cognitive, sensory, motor processing
cortex
gray matter of spinal cord
butterfly shape
cell bodies
unmyelinated axons
dorsal and ventral roots
white matter of spinal cord
myelinated axons
posterior furniculus
lateral furniculus
anterior furniculus
myelinated axons in spinal cord
fasiculi/tracts
location of V1
occipital love
ascending and descending pathways are located where is spinal cord
tracts in white matter
carries sensory info from periphery of body to brain
ascending pathway
carry motor impulses from brain to muscle
descending pathway
3 neurons of ascending pathway
1st order located in DRG
2nd order that connect 1st and 3rd
3rd with cell body in thalamus which projects to cortex
how many spinal nerves
31 pairs
brainstem components
medulla
pons
midbrain
controls autonomic fxn
medulla
coordinates movement related info transfer btw cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum
pons
controls sensory and motor fxn like eye movement
midbrain
MLF located where and fxn
upper medulla
relays vestibular infor to exterior eye muscles and coordinates VOR
superior colliculus
upper midbrain
inferior colliculus
lower midbrain
forebrain
diencephalon and cerebral hemisphere
epithalamus
pineal gland makes melatonin
thalamus
relays sensory to cortex
contains vol motor neurons
subthalamus
communicates with bsal ganglia to help control muscle movement
hypothalamus
body temp
eating
sleeping
high level processing, senosry interpretation, motor control, intelligence, emotion
cerebral hemispheres
hippocampus
temporal lobe

spatial orientation
memory
smell
past memories

goes in alzheimers
fine motor movements
posture
balance
cerebellum
pyramidal motor pathway
vol movement
decussation of pyramidal motor pathway
caudal medulla

90 cross here to opp side of spinal column and become lateral corticospinal tract
fibers that dont decussate in pyramindal
anterior corticospinal tract
lesion above/below medulla cause what problems in pyramidal
above = contra

below = ipsi
spinothalamic pathway carries
pain and temp info from body
decussation of spinothalamaic pathway
spinal cord
lesion above/below crossing in spinothalmaic
above = ipsi

below = contra
trigeminothalamic pathway
carries pain and temp from face
crossing of trigemino
spinal col in medulla
lesion above/below crossing of trigemino
above = contra

below = ipsi
medial lemniscus
touch
pain
vibration
cuneate tract
upper body and lateral of MLP
gracillis tract
lower body and medial of MLP
MLP crosses at
medulla
lesion above/below crossing of MLP
above - contra

below - ipsi
images of objects in VF are formed how on retina
inverted and upside down
nasal fibers from both eyes cross where
optic chiasm
temporal fibers from both eyes do what at chiasm
stay temporal
fibers after passing thru optic tract synapse where
LGN
lateral LGN contains what axons
superior VF (inferior fibers0
medial LGN contains what axons
inferior VF (superior fibers)
LGN projects to
striate cortex
myer's loop
axons from LGN go thru this
located in temporal lobe
carry info about SVF (inferior fibers)
other axons from LGN go where
parietal lobe
carry info about IVF (superior fibers)
visual cortex aka
area 17
striate cortex
V1
V1 located where
occipital lobe within calcarine fissure
left occipital love encodes
RVF
right occipital lobe encodes
LVF
upper calcarine fissure represents
LVF (superior fibers)
lower calcarine fissure represents
SVF (inferior fibers)
visual cortex projects to
area 18 and 19
MT V5 codes
motion
V4 codes
color
this pathway has:

M ganglion cells
lrg RF
lrg axons
project to M layers of LGN
movement and high freq images
magno
this pathway:

P ganglion cells
small RF
small axons
project to p layers of LGN
high resol, detail, color
parvo
substantial VF loss
anopsia
smaller VF defect
scotoma
damage to retina or optic nerve
loss of vision in corresponding eye
damage to optic chiasm
crossing fibers of each eye

bitemporal hemianopsia
damage to post chiasm
both eyes
homononymus hemianopsia
damage to central region of chiasm causing defects in contral visual hemisphere
damage on left side optic tract
loss of temporal side OD
loss of nasal side OS
damage to temporal optic radiation (meyer's)
damages SVF of contra VF

damage to right myer's causes upper left VF damage

homo quad
damage to medial optic radiation
damage to inferior part of contra field

inf homo quad
damage to visual cortex
macular spaing
damage to ESC
cerebral achromatopsia
respond to edges and orientation specific stiuli
cortical neurons of V1
average visual scene that elicits a response in a cell
receptive filed
excited by stimuli placed in certain locations and inhibited by others
simple cells
mixed excitatory and inhibitory response thru out RF receiving higher level input from many simpke cells
complex cells
1st place in visula pathway where we see binocular cells
v1
2 arteries that supply brain
2 ICA
2 vertebrals
where do vertebral come from
subclavian a
what do vertebral supply
spinal cord
basilar a is formed via what and where
formed in brainstem by joining R and L vertebrals
what does basilar a supply
pons
what does basilar a join with at circle of willis
ICA
where do ICA come from
common carotid in neck
what do ICA branch into
anterior cerebral a
middle cerebral a
what do ant and mid cerebral suppky
forebrain
place where basilar, ICA, anterior and posterior communicating a meet
circle of willis
communicating a do what
join basilar and ICA
what does circle of willis do
forms circle beneath brain and supplies brain