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28 Cards in this Set

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The _____ of sin waves is how much pressure is exerted on the eardrums.
amplitude
How many Db does it take to damage your eardrum?
120 Db.
What are the three little bones that vibrate the tympanic membrane?
Malleus, incus, and stapes
The ______ transduces sound energy into electrical signals and forwards them to the brain.
cochlea
What frequencies does the apex of the basilar membrane respond to? The base?
apex-low frequencies; base-high frequencies.
What is the inner ear receptor organ that surmounts the basilar membrane and contains a single row of inner hairs and 3 rows of outer hairs?
Organ of corti
Which hair cells are important for deconvulting frequencies or tones?
inner hair cells.
What causes hair cells to depolarize because they are filled with k+?
endolymph
What principle relates the location of hair cells along the cochlea to frequency? Frequency here is a function of location.
Place principle
Which principle says that frequency is a function of a characteristic frequency not its location?
Frequency principle
What is the amplification in the basilar membrane that may sound like a click called?
otoacoustical emission
What is it called when sound waves arrive in the left ear before the right, allowing you to know where the sound is coming from?
interoral timing differences
Explain how tugging on a hair cell can activate channels
Channels are regulated by a molecular gate, whose opeing and closing is controlled by the tension in an elastic element, the gating spring, that senses hair bundle displacement.
What somatic sensory receptor responds best to vibratory stimuli?
Pacinian corpulses
Second order neurons of the dorsal column medial lemniscus pathway receive connections from primary afferent neurons innervating the_____ side of the body. The ascending axons of the primary afferent fibers travel in the dorsal _____ matter.
Ipsilateral; white
The primary somatosensory cortex is localized to the..?
post-central gyrus
In general, primary afferent neuron axons of light touch receptors conduct action potentials more _______ than the axons of nociceptors.
rapidly
Which of the following classes of neurons form part of the outermost layer of neural elements in the retina (i.e. farthest from the lens)? horizontal cells, cones, bipolar cells, ganglion cells
cones
Transducin molecules in photoreceptors are an example of a. g-protein coupled receptors b. converted to the all-trans conformation by ligh
c. a vitamin A derivative d. GTP binding proteins (g-proteins)
GTP binding proteins (g-proteins)
Injection of cGMP molecules into a photoreceptor cell would be expected to cause the cell to _____.
depolarize
On center ganglion cells in the retina that are depolarized by light in the center of their receptive fields receive ____ input from on-center bipolar cells.
excitatory
The perceived loudness of a pure tone is in large part a function of the ____ of the sound pressure wave.
amplitude
The primary auditory cortex is localized within the ...
superior temporal lobe
How do the responses of slowly vs. rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors differ during a sustained duration mechanical stimulus.
slowly adapting: respond at onset of stimulus and continue to respond for the duration of the stimulus
rapidly adapting: respond transiently at onset of stimulus and again at termination of stimulus.
Define what a receptive field of a cold receptor primary afferent nerve fiber is
a region of skin that responds to a cold stimulus
Define dermatome
the area of skin that is innervated by a single dorsal root
Describe the biochemical events that cause membrane hyperpolarization when light strikes a rhodopsin molecule in a photoreceptor cell
1) light activates rhodopsin 2) rhodopsin activates transducin 3) transducin activates cGMP phosphodiesterase 4) cGMP converted to 5' GMP 5) cGMP activated Na+ channel closes 6) cell hyperpolarizes
Explain retinotopic organization of the primary visual cortex.
The visual field is represented in the primary visual cortex as a precise point-to-point map that is inverted left to right and top to bottom. This map corresponds to the location of the photoreceptors in the retina. Cells in the fovea, corresponding to the center of the visual field, give rise to the largest area of representation in the cortex.