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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Where is the primary motor cortex (M1) located?
posterior aspect of frontal lobe (4)
Where is the primary visual cortex (V1) located?
most posterior aspect of occipital lobe
What are the Brodman's Area designations for S1, M1, V1?
S1: 3, 1, 2; M1: 4; V1: 17
What is the role of Broca's area? where is it located?
inferior frontal gyrus (44, 45); mediates motor speech (production)
What is the role of Wernicke's area? Where is it located?
superior temporal gyrus (22); mediates speech comprehension
What is a consequence of a lesion in: Broca's area?
motor (expressive, nonfluent) aphasia; BROca's BROken speech
What is a consequence of a lesion in: Wernicke's area?
sensory (fluent, receptive) aphasia; Wernicke is Wordy but makes no sense
What is a consequence of a lesion in: Arcuate fasciculus?
conduction aphasia: poor repetition w/ good comprehension and fluent speech
What is a consequence of a lesion in: Amygdala?
Kluver-Bucy syndrome: hyperorality, hypersexuality
What is a consequence of a lesion in: Right parietal lobe?
spatial neglect syndrome (contralateral)
What is a consequence of a lesion in: Mammillary bodies?
Wernicke-Korsakoff's encephalopathy: anterograde amnesia (think alcoholism)
What is a consequence of a lesion in: Cerebellar vermis?
Truncal ataxia and dysarthria
What is a consequence of a lesion in: Cerebellar hemisphere?
Limb ataxia and intention tremor
What is a consequence of a lesion in: Reticular activating system?
Coma
Name five nerves and one vessel that pass through the cavernous sinus.
CN III, IV, V1, V2, VI; internal carotid artery
Name three structures passing through optic canal (one nerve, two vessels).
CN II, ophthalmic artery, central retinal vein
Name five structures passing through superior orbital fissure (four nerves, one vessel).
CN III, IV, V1, VI; ophthalmic vein
Name the foramina of exit for each division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V).
Standing Room Only: V1 = Superior orbital fissure; V2 = foramen Rotundum; V3 = foramen Ovale
Name four structures passing through the jugular foramen (three nerves, one vessel).
CN IX, X, XI; jugular vein
Name structures passing through foramen magnum.
brain stem, vertebral arteries, spinal roots of CN XI
Name two nerves passing through internal auditory meatus.
CN VII, VIII
Describe the innervation of the extraocular muscles.
LR6SO4R3 : Lateral Rectus = CN VI, Superior Oblique = CN IV, and the Rest are CN III
List in sequence the nerves, brain structures, and muscles involved in the pupillary light reflex from illumination of one eye to bilateral pupillary constriction.
Light => retina => optic nerve => optic chiasm => optic tract => prectectal nuclei (synapse) => Edinger-Westphal nuclei (synapse) => oculomotor nerve => ciliary ganglion (synapse) => pupillary constrictor muscles
What is the characteristic lesion in internuclear ophthalmoplegia?
destruction of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) => medial rectus palsy on attempted lateral gaze
Name three characteristic clinical features of internuclear ophthalmoplegia.
1. On attempted lateral gaze, contralateral eye fails to abduct past midline; 2. Contralateral nystagmus on attempted lateral gaze; 3. Normal convergence
What neurologic disease is commonly associated with internuclear ophthalmoplegia (aka MLF syndrome)?
multiple sclerosis; think MLF = MS
Name the visual field defect associated with a lesion of each of the following structures: Right optic nerve
Right anopsia
Name the visual field defect associated with a lesion of each of the following structures: Optic chiasm
Bitemporal hemianopsia
Name the visual field defect associated with a lesion of each of the following structures: Rigth optic tract
Left homonymous hemianopsia
Name the visual field defect associated with a lesion of each of the following structures: Right Meyer's loop (temporal lesion)
Left upper quadrantic anopsia
Name the visual field defect associated with a lesion of each of the following structures: Right Meyer's loop
Left upper quadrantic anopsia
Name the visual field defect associated with a lesion of each of the following structures: Right dorsal optic radiation
Left lower quadrantic anopsia
Classify each cranial nerve (1-12) according to its function as a sensory nerve, a motor nerve, or both.
Mnemonic: Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Big Boobs Matter Most
Name the cranial nerves that innervate the eye muscles.
Oculomotor (III), Trochlear (IV), and Abducens (VI)
Name the cranial nerves that innervate the facial muscles (extraocular muscles excluded).
Trigeminal (V): mastication; Facial (VII): facial movement
Name the cranial nerves associated with sight, smell, hearing, and taste.
sight: optic (II); smell: olfactory (I); hearing: vestibulocochlear (VIII); taste: facial (VII) for ant. 2/3 of tongue and glossopharyngeal (IX) for post 1/3
Which cranial nerves pass through the superior orbital fissure?
III, IV, V1, VI
Which cranial nerves pass through the internal auditory meatus?
VII, VIII
Which cranial nerves pass through the jugular foramen?
IX, X, XI
Which cranial nerves exit the brainstem caudal to the pons?
Cranial nerves IX (VIII at jnx) through XII
Which cranial nerves exit the brainstem rostral to the pons?
Cranial nerves I through IV
Which cranial nerves are associated with the cerebellopontine angle?
CN VII, VIII, and IX
What is the main location of CSF return via the arachnoid granulations?
superior sagittal sinus
Describe the route of CSF from the superior sagittal sinus to the internal jugular vein.
superior sagittal sinus => confluence of sinuses => transverse sinus => sigmoid sinus => internal jugular vein (via jugular foramen)
Which three sinuses combine to form the confluence of sinuses?
superior sagittal sinus, straight sinus, occipital sinus
Homunculus is the topographical representation of the body that exists in what 2 areas of the cerebral cortex?
Sensory and Motor areas
Sensation for ____(What part of the body) is generally located superior medially on the primary sensory cortex while ____ is located more laterally
Lower limbs, Head and neck
Lesion at the anterior cerebral artery will canse deficit in sensation or movement in which part of the body?
Lower limbs
Which artery supplies the medial surface of the brain, leg-foot area of motor and sensory cortices?
Anterior cerebral artery
If you suspect a lesion in both Broca's and Wernecke's areas, a lesion in which artery could be the cause?
Middle cerebral artery