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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Central Nervous System:
-Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System:
-Everything not in CNS
Camilla Golgi
Believed neurons were connected
Santiago Ramony Y Cajal
Believed Neurons to be independent
Neuron Doctrine
neurons are anatomically, physiologically, metabolically individual units
Palade & Sanford Palay
Used electron microscope to show synaptic cleft (first proof of neuron doctrine)
5 - 135 microns in diameter
-very heterogeneous
Nissl Stains
stain rough endoplasmic reticulum
emanate from cell body, always one, sometimes more
Dendritic Spines
increase surface area for denrdritic contact (on dendrites)
Amacrine Cell
Neuron without an axon
Axon Hillock
•Where axon comes out of soma
•Where electrical transmission arises
Axonal branches, at end of axon
Golgi Type I Cell
•Projection neuron
•Sends information some distance “away”
Golgi Type II Cell
•Local circuit neuron
•Axon goes not very far away from cell body
Terminal Bouton
AT end of axon
Collateral Branches
•Branches out of axon, connecting to nearby neuron
En Passant (In passage)
•Little boutons on terminal branches, near terminal bouton
•Used to release neurotransmitters post-synaptically
Knowing polarity of a connection
•“Neuron A projects to Neuron B” shows that A is pre-synaptic, B is post-synpatic
collection of cell bodies in central nervous system
collection of cell bodies in Peripheral nervous system
Cortex (corticies)
means “bark” Stratified layers of neurons, homogeneity of cell types w/in layers
bundle of axons w/ common origin and common target in the central nervous system (named base on where they began, where they ended… eg, corticospinal tract)
bundle of axons w/ common origin an common target in peripheral nervous system
Glia (glial cells)
100 billion of them!
Functions of Myelination
-Miniaturizing nervous system
-sultatory conduction
-Speeds up electrical current conduction rate
Schwann Cells
Myelinating glia in PNS
-Myelinate just one axon
node of ranvier
space between myelination
Myelinating glia in PNS
-Ea oligo- can myelinate many axons
-Membrane on membrane
Obersteiner-redlich Zone
•Place where CNS and PNS nerves must meet, change in type of glia that myelinates them
•Very difficult to get CNS nerves to re-generate, but PNS will
End Feet
Ends of astrocytes:
-attach to capillaries
-form glial limitans
Glial Limitans
End feet of astrocytes that surround CNS, forming thin layer
protoplasmic astrocyte
Thicker, shorter branches than in fiber tracts, located in the gray matter
fibrous astrocyte
longer, thinner branches, located in white matter
made up of endothelial tissue (like two rolled-up pieces of paper)
-leaky in other parts of body
-very tight in CNS
•Take up space between neurons (affect movement of neurons)
•Important during development
-Processes provide guidance for neurons
-Can trigger cells to mature into stem cells (?)
•Must have relatively stable concentration of potassium ions in brain
-Astorcytes soak up extra potassium ions
-Maybe also chlorine, sodium
•Synapses surrounded by astrocytes (contain neurotransmitter, prevent it from affecting nearby neuron)
•Astorcytes can assist in re-uptake of neurotransmitters from synapse (only substance is entering astorcyte, not neuron)
•Have certain neurotransmitter receptors
•Can trigger elcectrical, biochemical reactions like neurons
•Will surround lesions (glial scar)… walling-offf dead, dying neurons in spinal cord/brain (only in CNS)
-In PNS there isn’t anything that resembles astrocytes
Lining of gut, digestive system
dermis, bones, muscles, parts of reproductive
gives rise to nervous system
Neural plate
surrounded by non-neural ectoderm, thickens, rostral end larger than caudal end
18 days of development
3 layers form, neural plate arises from ectoderm
21 days of development
edges of neural plate fold up, begin to close-up, ectoderm begins to envelop it
neural crest cells
give rise to peripheral nervous system
a space (like in the neural tube, filled with CSF)
ependyma (ependymal lining)
inside lining of neural tube, cells arise from here and thicken the tube in different areas
30 Days of Development
3 Vesicle Stage:
-Prosencephalon (forebrain)
-Mesencephalon (midbrain)
-Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
Lamina Terminalis
very rostral end of developing nerual tube
40 Days of Development
5 Vesicle Stage:
-Prosencephalon gives rise to:
-Lateral Ventricles
-3rd Ventricle
-Mesencephalon is just there
-Cerebral Aquaduct
-Rhombencephalon gives rise to:
-Metencephalon (pons)
-Myelencephalon (medulla)
-4th Ventricle
-Central Canal at bottom gets obliterated during further growth
Cervical Flexure
at Base of rhombencephalon
Pontine Flexure
Divides rhombencephalon into two parts
Cephalic Flexure
Between rhombencephalon and mesencephalon
Motor Centers (descending pathways)
In nucleus of CNS, that innervates glands or muscles in PNS
Crossing, related to roman numeral ten
corticospinal tract
•Cortico-spinal tract, begins on one side, ends on contralateral side.. point, the two tracts cross at the midline… separate spinal cord from medulla
Pontine Tegmentum
“floor” of midbrain, rostral from Medulla
relay btwn cerebral cortex and cerebellum
•Have cells that deccisate and go into cerebellum
Information comes from cerebral cortex
motor and sensory centers for head; ascending and descending pathways
spinal cord
-central canal
-motor and sensory centers for trunk; ascending (to brain) and descending (away from brain) pathways
-4th Ventricle
-Pons, Pontine Tegmentum, cerebellum
regluates balance, muscle tone, and motor coordination
-cerebral aqueduct
-basis pedunculi, midbrain tegmentum, inferior colliculus, superior colliculus
basis pedunculi
descending fibers from cerebral cortex en route to brainstem (including pons) and spinal cord
inferior colliculus
relay center for auditory information
superior colliculus
center for visual reflexes nd visuo-motor linkage
regulates the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system
Autonomic Nervous system
controls smooth and cardiac muscles
-3rd Ventricle
relay of sensory and motor information to cerebral cortex
-1st and 2nd ventricles (lateral ventricles)
-basal ganglia (striatum)
-cerebral cortices
prehypothalamic sensory relay center
basal ganglia
regulates output of motor cortices
cerebral cortices
analysis of sensory information; formulation of motor output patterns; substrate for higher cognitive functions