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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where is the enlargement for the arms on the spinal cord?
Where is the lumbosacral enlargement?
Lateral horn
Visceral motor neurons
Seen in T2, T10, L1
Not seen in S4- coming out of lumbosacral enlargement so larger horn
What is cytoarchitecture?
cell shape
cell size
density and distribution of cell bodies
intensity of stainings
What did Bror Rexed create?
He was the guy who made Rexed's Lamina, which are lines and roman numerals for each area of the gray matter
- generally continuous at every level except laminas 6 & 7
What do laminas 1-6 correspond to?
dorsal horn
What is lamina 7?
- intermediate zone, heterogenous
- in T10- IML (intermedial lateral)- visceral motor neurons, sympathetic
- in T10- IMM (intermedial medial)
- parasympathetic at S4 level
- nucleus dorsalis (of Clark's nucleus) here
- ventral spinocerebellar tract (VST) located on surface of ventral horn)
Nucleus dorsalis of Clark's nucleus
-group of cell bodies getting input from muscle spindles and sends output to cerebellum
- input we don't become consciously aware of
- spinocerebellar tract
Laminas 8&9
- in ventral horn
- lamina 9 for motor neurons
- lamina 8 has some interneurons
Lamina 10
surrounds central canal
-divide white matter surrounding gray matter of spinal cord
- lateral, dorsal, ventral
tract of funiculi
Spino-thalamic Pathway Function
-involved in pain/nociception, temperature, and crude touch
Dorsal column/Medial Lemniscus Pathway Function
-Fine, 2-point, discriminative touch
Corticospinal Pathway Function
voluntary movement
Spinothalamic Pathway Location from S1
ascends in ventral portion of lateral funiculus
Dorsal Column/Medial Lemniscus Pathway Location from S1
- ascends from dorsal funiculus/dorsal column called fasciculus gracilis
corticospinal pathway location from S1
-descending in dorsal portion of lateral funiculus
- axon from ventral horn to muscle
- interneuron btw corticospinal tract neuron and motor neuron
- corticospinal tract in ventral lateral funiculus
How does the corticospinal tract descend?
goes ventrally after decussating dorsally
Ascending Posterior Pathways (1- Cuneatus)
Joint Capsule->Primary Neuron->Nucleus Cuneatus (in dorsal funiculi of lower medulla)->Internal Arcuate Nucleus->Medial Lemniscus (Medial and ventral)->ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the thalamus->Cortex
Ascending Posterior Pathway (2- gracilis)
Dorsal Root Ganglion->Primary Neuron->Nucleus Gracilis (in dorsal funiculi of lower medulla)->Internal Arcuate Nucleus->Medial Lemniscus (Medial and ventral)->ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the thalamus->Cortex
Ascending Lateral Spinothalamic Tract
Pain Receptor->Primary Neuron->Lateral Spinothalamic Tract below medulla->peripheral and medial fibers which ascend in lateral funiculi and branch out to reticular formation (in upper and lower medulla and pons) and periaqueductal gray (in inferior colliculus)->Ventral Posterior Lateral Nucleus Thalamus->Cortex
Ascending Anterior Spinothalamic Tract
Touch Receptor->Primary Neuron->Anterior Spinothalamic Tract below medulla decussates and ascends anteriorly until it hits the medulla when it almost merges with lateral spinothalamic tract where it branches to reticular formation->Ventral Posterior Lateral Nucleus Thalamus->Cortex
Ascending Posterior Spinocerebellar Tract
Position Movement Sensations Below C8->Primary Neuron which goes through dorsal funiculi in S1 and ascends and bends in L3->in L3, synapses on Clarke's column->Posterior Spinocerebellar Tract which ascends in dorsal portion of lateral funiculi->inferior cerebellar peduncle->Cerebellum
Ascending Cuneocerebllar Tract
Position Movement Sensations Above C8->Primary Neuron which goes through dorsal funiculi in C7 and ascends to dorsal portion of lateral funiculus->in lower medulla, synapses on exterior cuneate nucleus->Cuneocerebellar Tract which ascends in dorsal portion of lateral funiculus->inferior cerebellar peduncle->Cerebellum
Descending Corticospinal Tract
Muscle->Neuromuscular Junction->Axon->Anterior Motor Neuron in Dorsal horn of spinal cord gray matter-> 2 paths:

1) synapses on terminal fiber and goes up anterior corticospinal tract which ascends anteriorly up to the primary motor area as well as branching off at the lower medulla to decussate and join the lateral corticospinal tract
2) synapses on terminal fiber->lateral corticospinal tract, which descends to anterior horn motor neuron
medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)
- descending fibers
- vestibular cell groups
- direction that eyes should move
external/lateral cuneate nucleus
- brings info from upper limbs
medial lemniscus
- info from lower limbs (hindlimbs)
What is the top of the ventricle called?
What does the pallium evolve into?
How many layers is the neocortex?
Where does the nucleus basalis innervate?
Innervates cortex, compromised in Alzheimer's, cholinergic
What is the indusium griseum?
the hippocampal rudiment; rostral dorsal part that doesn't develop much
Where does the olfactory bulb arise from?
What does the subpallium give rise to?
What do gene patterns corroborate as far as the alar and basal plates?
corroborates alar/basal segments in caudal part of brain as well as neuromeres (repeating segments vertically instead of horizontal)
How are the basal and alar plates divided in the telencephalon?
- basal portion smaller compared to alar portion
Where does the sulcus limitans end?
optic chiasm
What is the space between the fornix and the third ventricle choroid plexus called?
transverse cerebral fissure
In what shape does the temporal lobe form and how does that effect the way other structures are shaped in development?
It is horeshoe shaped and makes the lateral ventricles, hippocampal formation, fornix, caudoputamen, and stria terminalis this shape too
Where do commisural fibers (anterior commissure and corpus callosum) cross?
cross in or dorsal to lamina terminalis
What is the fornix?
-efferent tract of hippocampal formation arching over the thalamus
- the tract passes by the anterior commisure and ends mostly in the mammilary bodies (fibers of fornix cross in caudal extension of the lateral terminalis)
lateral lemniscus
auditory pathway from superior olivary nucleus
superior olivary nucleus
auditory relay center in pontine tegment
What tracts end or innervate in the inferior cerebellar peduncle?
1) Olivo-cerebellar tract
2) Dorsal Spino-Cerebellar Tract
3) Cuneocerebellar Tract
What tracts end or innervate the middle cerebellar peduncle?
Ponto-cerebellar cells
What tracts end or innervate the middle cerebellar peduncle?
1) Ventral Spino-Cerebellar Tract
2) Brachium conjunctiva
Main accessory nucleus of V
fine touch from face
descending tract of V
pain, temp, crude touch
brachium conjunctiva
crosses at midbrain tegmentum and most get to thalamus
2 parts of the substantia nigra
1) substantia nigra pars compacts- pigmented cells
2) substantia nigra pars reticulata
pyramidal cells
cell body triangular/pyramidal, 10-50 micron diameter, some giant
Betz cells
100-150 microns
only in primary motor cortex
type of pyramidal cell
internal pyramidal cell layer
descending connections to;

red nucleus
cranial nerve nuclei
pontine nuclei (corticopontine fibers)
reticular formation
spinal cord
external pyramidal layer
output to corpus callosum (contralateral)
- commissure fibers
external granular layer
association fibers
project to cortex on same side
internal granular layer
doesn't leave cortex
mostly excitatory
variety of places to end in cortex
high concentration of granular cells
multiform layer
spindle/fusiform cells here
have 2 dendrites in different directions
dendrites branch at layer IV
axons out to thalamus
specific relay nuclei of the thalamus
terminate heavily on layer IV on granule cells
axon branches lots in layer IV
allows communication btw thalamus and cortex
non-specific nuclei of thalamus
diffuse pattern of termination
don't necessarily terminate in every layer or same way
raphe nuclei (serotonin), LC (NE), nucleus basalis (ach), VTS (especially frontal- DA)
association commissural fibers
99% of fibers in cortex
go to layers II, III (branch diffusely here)
Korbinian Brodmann
found 52 areas of regions in cortex based on differences of cell densities
Lorento de No
saw vertical columns and spaces among layers
student of Cajal
elementary units of cortex
each cell type contained in each column
found all cells in column respond similaryly to same stimulus
showed bar of light to cats in certain orientations that would begin firing; for a particular column there was a particular bar of light orientation they respond to (seen in auditory and visual cortex)
Where is the nucleus accumbens?
btw striatum and septal nuclei rostrally, near rostral end of caudate and putamen (where they touch)
Where is the cortex thickest?
primary motor cortex (4.5mm thick)
Where is the cortex thinnest?
primary visual cortex (1.5mm)
What is consistent about the cortex' most superficial layer?
- near pia
- cell-poor
- mostly dendrites or axons
- called molecular layer
Where are the main projections cells?
- deeper than molecular layer
- usually have dendrites in molecular layer (apical dendrites)
bulge up
fold in
deep groove
Where does the posterior pituitary gland arise from?
neural tube
where does the anterior pituitary gland arise from?
What does the epithalamus consist of?
habenular commisure, posterior commissure, pineal gland