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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Principal Pain Receptors go to tissues and organs but not to what?
the brain
Principal Pain Receptors respond to what?
noxious stimuli (negative stimuli)
What is in inflammatory soup?
prostaglandins and braykinns (some of the most potent pain producing chemicals known)
The inflammatory soup causes an avalanche of inflammatory chemicals such as...
histime, potassium, and ATP
histime, potassium, and ATP activate specific receptors on
small diameter C fibers, thus initaing pain signals
describe superficial somatic pain
sharp breif pain
finely myelinated A delta fibers which are very fast
describe deep somatic pain
burning aching pain
more diffuse than superfical somatic pain and lasts longer
small unmyelinated C fiber very slowly
transmisison of pain impulses to the CNS along the sensory neurons causes
release of glutamate and substance P into the synaptic cleft
depolarizes the postsynaptic neurons, relaying pain message to the brain
Subtance P
acts more diffusely as a neuromodualator to sensitize adjacent neurons
the axons of most pain-relaying interneurons cross the cord and enter where?
ventrolateral ascendng tracts
describe the express pathway?
(The Lateral SPinothalamic Tract) that ascends directly to the thalamus which relays to the cortex (this allows the sensory cortex to rapidly analyze exactly what hurts and how much)
describe the take the local pathway?
a set of smaller-diameter slower fibers that make abundent synapses in the brain stem, hypothalamusm and other limbic system structures before reaching the thalmus (these pathways mediate arousal and emotional reations to pain and has a longer-lasting effects on the CNS)
emotion reactions to pain are regulated by ...
a slower responce to pain
massage, acuptuncure, PENS active what?
LARGER-DIAMETER TOUCH FIBERS that interfere with pain transmission to the brain cord
Gate Theory (1965-Melzack and Wall) has to do with what?
the activation of Large Diameter touch fibers that interfere with pain transmission in the spinal cord
How does the Gate Theory work?
thresholod stimulation of the large touch fibers(as in massaging your knee) causes a burst of firing in certian DORSAL HORN CELLS, followed by a brief period of inhibited pain transmission, essentially closing the "gate" on pain
How do the descending projections from the brain modulate pain?
when you are in pain, the brain activates these pathways to dull our pain perception
What does the periaqueductal gray matter contain?
many receptors for the body's own opiates, endorphins and enkaphalins
Together with the periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the periaqueductal gray matter it does what?
oversees descending pain suppressor fibers that synapse in the DORSAL HORN
hypnosis, natural childbirth, morphine and electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal gray matter tap into what?
natural opiate pathways
what fibers don't release opiates?
Descending pain suppressors
what do descending pain suppressors release?
either norepinephrine or serotonin onto the dorsal horn neurons, either inhibiting pain transmission directly or activating enkephalin-releasing interneurons
Enkephalin does what?
acts both
1-presynaptically on synaptic terminals of nocieptor fibers to decrease their release of Substance P
2-postsynaptically to inhibit action potential generation
the ANS innervates what?
cardiac, smooth muscle and glands

has slower conduction
Describe the pathways of ANS
Pathways have 2 Neurons

-Preganglionic neuron (begins in the CNS and is lightly myelinated and thin preganglionic axon

-Autonomic ganglion

-Ganglionic Neuron(thinner, unmyelinated postganglionic axon)
what do we mean by dual innervation of the ANS?
that SNS and ParaSNS of the ANS are always both active, usually one is only slightly active while the other is almost fully active
where is the D division and what is it?
parasympathetic (resting and digesting)

-digesting, defecation, diuresis
where is the E division and what is it?

-exercise, excitment, emergency, and embarrassment
descibe the pre and post ganglions of the para and sympathetic NS.
para has a long preganlionic and short postganglionic fibers and sympathetic has the opposite
descibe the origins of the para and sympathetic
para orginates from the brain and sacrum and the sympathetic emerges from the thoracolumbar spinal cord
descibe the locations of the para and sympathetic
para: most are located in the effector organs (where they synapse in the terminal or intramural ganglia)

symp: lie close to the spinal cord
descibe the relation of Ach and NE with the para and sympathetic NS?
Para: all fibers relase Ach

Sympathetic: all preganglionic released Ach and most post-ganglionic relase NE
Which cranial nerves contain parasympathetic outflow?
3(oculomotor)=pupils dilation and lens bulging

7(facial)=nasal and lacrimal glands

9(glosspharyngeal)=parotid salivery glands
Of the three cranial nerves that contain parasympathetic outflow, describe where the pre and postganglionic fibers are..
only the preganglionic fibers are within the stated CN and the postganglionic fibers are within the CN V(5-trigeminal)
CN X (Vagus)
-accounts for about 90% of all preganglions parasympathetic fibers in the body
-innervates almost every organ of the thorax and Abd
-fibers are sent to the following nexi
-at the esophagus, fibers from each side intermingle and form the anterior and posterior vagal trucks
-they follow the esophagus into the abd cavity where they send fibers to the aortic plexus and brach off into abdominal organs
where are the ventral rami of the parasympathetic NS?
s2-s4 ventral rami

form the pelvic nerves which pass through the inferior pelvic plexus
what does the parasympathetic NS affect?
distal LI
reproductive organs
where is the sympathetic NS located?
all cell bodies are located T1-L2(where spinal cord ends)
what does the preganglionic neurnons in the spinal cord grey matter form?
they form the lateral horns or visceral motor zones
The lateral horns or visceral motor zones enters and a joins what?
they enter the white rami communicates and then an adjoinging chain or paravertebral ganglion that forms the sympathetic trunk or chain
Describe the sympathetic trunk.
the sympathetic trunk extends from the neck to pelvis but all sympathetic fibers arise from the thoracic and lumber regions
How many ganglia are in each chain of the sympathetic NS?
23 ganglia in each chain, 3 Cervial, 11 thoracic, 4 lumbar, 4 sacral and 1 coccygeal (exit spine T1-L2 but ganglia are spread out through most of the spine)
What are the three things that can happen to a preganglionic axon in a gnaglion?
1-it can synapse within the ganglion to another neuron

2-it can ascend or descend to another ganglion

3-it can continue past the ganglion without synapsing (only in abd and pelvis)
Describe the POSTGANGLIONIC AXONS of the pathways with ganglionic synapses (of Symapthetic NS)
they enter the ventral or dorsal remus via the grey rami communicantes

-affect skin sweat glands, and blood vessels

Describe the pathways with ganglionic synapses (of Symapthetic NS) that go to the head and thorax
head: arise from T1-T4

thorax: arise from T1-T6 (most serve the skin)
1-thoracic, lumbar, and sacral splanchnic nerves (abd aortic plexus) they synapse with


2-abd (T5-L2)

3-Pelvis (T10-L2)
visceral reflex
sense chemical changes, stretch(most painful) and irritation of the viscera

ALWAYS HAS TWO NEURONS IN A VISCERAL ARCH (unlike skeletal where it has one)
blocks parasympathetic effects
used for pupil dilation
anti-cholinestrase(prevents the breakdown of Ach)
tx myasthenia gravis
Tricylic Antidepressants
SSRI (keeps serotinin or NE in cleft longer)
OTC drugs that stimulate a-adrenergic receptors

-treats colds, allergies, coughs, and nasal congestion
B-Adrenergic blockers
reduce heart rate, and prevent arrthythmias