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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are glial cells?
support and help with function in neurons
glial cells in...
CNS: astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells, microglia

PNS: satellite cells, Schwann cells
Nissel Bodies??
dark clumps of RER
types of neurons and function of each
unipolar: general sensory
bipolar: special sensory (vision, balance, hearing, smell, etc.)
multipolar*: motor

*many processes but only one axon
endoneurium: surround individual axon
perineurium: surrounds a bundle of axons
epineurium: surrounds entire nerve
connection of temporal lobes of hypothalamus
connection of ventricle III and IV
cerebral aquaduct
connection of two hemispheres
corpus callosum
connection of two thalamus
thalmic adhension
where does the brachial plexus come out of...
what is present in the entire spinal cord
substantia gelatinosa
nucleus proprius
medial motor column
precentral gyrus
paracentral gyrus
postcentral gyrus
precentral: motor upper body

paracentral: lower body (pre, motor; post, sensory)

postcentral: sensory upper body
epicritic body pathway
dorsal column
n. gracilus/cuneatus
medial lemniscus
VPL of Thalamus
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
protopathic body pathway
spinothalamic tracts
VPL of Thalamus
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
L2 and L3 ventral roots contain...
lower motor neurons
preganglionic SYMPATHETIC fibers
S2, S3, S4 ventral roots contain
lower motor neurons
preganglionic PARASYMPATHETIC fibers

all ventral roots contain...
lower motor neurons
fasciculus cuneate is found in...
only cervical
protopathetic pathway...what type of pathway...high or low fidelity??
pain and temperature
low fidelity (multi synaptic)
epicritic pathway...what type of pathway...high or low fidelity??
discriminative (two tactile sensation)
high fidelity (few synapses)
route of protopathic pathway
1. DRG
2. nucleus proprius
3. central canal
4. ant. white commissure (X)
5. lateral spinothalamic tract
6. VPL nucleus of thalamus
7. cerebral cortex
8. postcentral gyrus
route of epicritic pathway
1. DRG
2. dorsal column: FC (T6 up)/FG (T7 down)
3. nucleus gracilus/cuneatus
4. sensory decussation (caudal medulla) (X)
5. medial lemniuscus
6. VPL nucleus of thalamus
7. cerebral cortex
8. postcentral gyrus
what lesion on the descending corticospinal fibers of the PMS of UMN will cause an IPSOLATERAL symptom
(lateral corticospinal tract)

because its crosses at the caudal medulla
what lesion on the descending corticospinal fibers of the PMS of UMN will cause a CONTRALATERAL symptom
(lateral corticospinal tract)

because its crosses at the caudal medulla
another term for "deep tendon reflex"
stretch reflex
what is significant about the L2-S2
lumbar cistern

spinal cord ends below L2
Pyramidal UMN projection from the cortex:
85% goes to...
15% goes to....
Lateral corticospinal tract (85%) cross at caudal medulla

Ventral corticospinal tract (15%) continues uncrossed until reaches spinal level
when you hit your knee...rubbing at the site of injury stimulates what...
substantia gelatinosa
light touch sensation from the...is transmitted on...sides of the spinal cord
1. Body
2. Both

Intermediate Pathway: Bilateral Projection
Paralysis: UMN
Quadriplegia: (4) C5-T1
Paraplegia: (2) below T1
Hemiplegia: (lateral half) above T2 on one side
flaccid muscle paralysis
decrease deep tendon reflex

are signs of...
Lower Motor Neuron Lesion
Brown-Sequard Syndrome (hemisection of the spinal cord)
Lateral corticospinal tract: ips. UMN spastic paralysis

Dorsal Column: FG (entire cord), FC (above T6), ips. epicritic

Lateral spinothalamic tract: contralateral loss of protopathic.
Horners syndrome is IPSOLATERAL or CONTRALATERAL??
fluid filled cavity in center of the spinal cord.
atrophy of anterior white commissure.
BILATERAL LOSS of Protopathic
how to remember sensory, motor or both for cranial nerves
some say marry money but my brother says big boobs matter more
which cranial nerves are parasympathetic
Oculomotor (III)
Facial (VII)
Gloossopharyngeal (IX)
Vagus (X)
Vagus and Hypoglossal comes out of...
Middle Medulla
Glossopharyngeal and Vestibulocchlear comes out of...
Rostal Medulla
Abducens and Facial comes out...
Caudal Pons
Trigeminal comes out of...
Middle Pons
Trochlear comes out of...
inferior colliculus
caudal midbrain
Oculomotor comes out of...
superior colliculus
pyramidal UMN: projection from the cortex. corticospinal synapses...
on LMN on the spinal cord
pyramidal UMN: projection from the cortex. corticobulbar synapses...
on the brainstem nuclei
Hypoglossal (...) controls...
(motor) lower motor neurons to tongue.
Vagus (...) controls
motor and sensory of viscera
general sensation
Medial Medullary Syndrome (Alternating Hypoglossal Hemiplegia)

CNXII: Damage will yield ipsilateral or contralateral

Pyramid: Damage will yield ipsilateral or contralateral
Damage CN XII: Ipsilateral
Damage to Pyramid: Contralateral
Lateral Medullary Syndrome

Damage to CN X
Damage to Spinal Tract of V
Damage to Reticulospinal Tract
Damage to Spinothalamic Tract
Damage to CN X: Ipsilateral
Damage to Spinal Tract of V: Ipsilateral (Face)
Damage to Reticulospinal Tract: Ipsilateral (Horners)
Damage to Spinothalamic Tract: Contralateral (Body)
Carotid Sinus Reflex
Carotid Sinus Reflex
Afferent: CN IX
Efferent: CN X
Gag Reflex
Gag Reflex
Afferent: CN IX
Efferent: CN X
Function of the CN IX
moves tongue
innervate parotid gland
taste info posterior 1/3 of tongue
Function of VIII
sensory inner ear for balance and equilibrium and hearing
Acoustic Neurinoma

CN8 Damage (balance and hearing)
CN7 Damage (lacrimal glands, muscle paralysis, loss of taste anterior 2/3 tongue)
Bells Palsy

CN7 muscle paralysis
Damage to Base of Pons
CN6 Damage and UMN of Pyramidal Tract:

Contralateral UMN spastic paralysis
Flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid
Lateral ventricles
Interventricular Foramina of Monro
3rd Ventricle
Cerebral Aqueducts
4th Ventricle
Exit Magendie and Luschka
subarachnoid space
arachnoid villi and granulation
dural venous sinus
obstruction of flow and/or absorption of CSF
Cerebellum is supplied blood from branches of the...
vertebral-basilar system:

Sup. Cerebellar Artery
Ant. Inferior Cerebellar Artery
Post. Inferior Cerebeller Artery
Corticobulbar Tract
UMN from cortex terminate at LMN of cranial nuclei in brainstem.

Distributes BILATERALLY to all cranial nerves except LOWER FACIAL!!!