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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. Postcentral gyrus
2. Marginal ramus of cingulate
2. Precuneus
What structures are in lobe number 1?
Anterior commisure
What is the structure at U?
Aterior limb of internal capsule
What structure is at W?
Globus Palideus
What structure is at V?
What structure is at Y?
What structure is at B?
Tentorium Cerebelli
What structure is at L?
What structure is at P?
Occipital lobe-
I. cuneate
J. calcarine fissure
K. lingula
What structure are included in Lobe 2?
cingulate gyrus
What is the structure at Z?
name the structures
The basal ganglia consists of what components?
It is a collection of grey matter nuclei consisting of the :
2. Puteman
3. Globus Pallidius
4. Subthalamic nucleus
5. Substantia nigra
6. Nucleus accumbens
7. ventral pallidum
*6,7 are part of the limbic system and are only sometimes considered in the basal ganglia! Some also include the Amygdala.
What is the anatomical positional relationship between the caudate and the amygdala?
It lies just anterior to the tail of the caudate
What three parts does the lenticular formation include?
1. internal globus pallidus
2. external globus pallidus
3. puteman
Which limb of the internal capsule do the corticobulbar and corticospinal tracks go through?
Posterior limb
The anterior limb of the internal capsule is bordered by the _______1_____ medially and the ______2_______ laterally.
1. head of the caudate
2. lentiform nucleus
The posterior limb of the internal capsule is bordered by the ______1_____ medially and the ______2______ laterally.
1. Thalmus
2. Lentiform nucleus (putamen + globus pallidus)
When looking at a horizontal section of the brain, the slice is just caudal to the thalmus, what section of the internal capsule would be seen?
Anterior limb
Embryologically, what is the subthalamic nucleus derived from?
Midbrain, while the thalmus is derived from the forebrain.
The ____1______ receives massive input projections from the cerebra cortex and is most input is _____2____ and uses ______3____ as a neurotransmiter.
1. striatum, with the puteman being the most important
2. excitatory
3. glutamate
This dopamenergic pathway inputs into the striatum and has both excitatory and inhibitory function with the same neurotransmiter. What is the neurotransmitter and the input nucleus?
1. Dopamine
2. Substancia nigra pars compacta
which cisterna does CN IX,X, and XI lie in?
Inferior cerebellopontine cisterna
Abducens nerve, basilar artery, and the base of AICA runs through which cisterna?
Prepontine cisterna
CN V,VII, and VIII run through which cisterna?
Superior cerebellopontine cisterna
Which cisterna is found at the caudal base of the cerebellum?
Cisterna magna
Which cisterna is found on the superior base of the cerebellum?
ambient cisterna
What are the four steps in the motor control circut through the basal ganglia?
1. cortical afferent information from areas 1-7
2. Direct and indirect pathways to the VL/VA (don't forget the input from the pars compacta tonic stimulation by dopamine)
3.Back to the cerebral cortex, just in the primary(4), premotor area(6), and supplementary(6).
4. Functions to control medial and lateral motor pathways.
What are the four steps through the oculomotor circuit through the basal ganglia.
1.Cerebral afferents from parietal and prefrontal cortex.
2.Input to the caudate then the output is via VA and MD nuclei to the superior colliculus
3. cortical targets are frontal(8) and supplementary eye fields(6)
4.Function is the control of eye movements,,,,especially saccades
What the four steps through the prefontal circuit through the basal ganglia?
1.Cortical afferents from parietal and premotor areas.
2. Pathway through basal ganglia- input to head of caudate, output via VA and MD nuclei
3. Cortical target is the prefrontal 9,10,11,12
4. Function is the executive and cognative func.
What are the four steps through the limbic circuit through the basal ganglia?
1. Cortical afferents- temporal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala.
2. Pathway through the basal ganglia- nucleus accumbins and ventral striatum, outputs via MD and VA
3. Cortical targets- Anterior portion of the limbic lobe
4. Function- emotion, motivation, learning and memory
In the corornal view, what is the somatotopy of the puteman and GP?
standing on head,,, inferior to superior (or ventral to dorsal,,,yes look it up),, head, arms, feet
Name six similarities between the basal ganglia and the cerebellum.
1. both have indirct control
2. both have major inputs/output loops
3. distinct pathways for med and lat motor pathways
4. output primarily through VL
5. somatopic organization
6.participate in voluntary motor behavior
Can you draw or talk your way through the indirect pathway? Don't forget to add wether it excites or inhibits....
now try the direct pathway
What movement is discribed by slowed, difficult to initiate movement
Absence of movement is concidered?
Discribe three ways within the Basal Ganglia to excessively activate the indirect pathway, and what is its effect on the thalmus?
1.Loss of dopamanergic input from SNpc.
2.Loss of strial inhbition from GP.
3.Loss of GPe inhibition of subthalmus.
--all result in increased inhibition of the Parkinsons
Name the five movement disorders that are part of Dyskinesia?
1. Hypokinetic
2. Hyperkinetic
3. Rigidity
4. Dystonia
5. Tremor
What is dyskinesia?
abnormal movements contralateral to side of lesion of basal ganglia involved.
uncontrolled involntary movements, caused by decreased inhibition of the thalmus by the strial or subthalamic malfunction
Name six hyperkinetic movements.
1. Athetosis
2. Chorea
3. Ballismus
4. Tics
5. Myoclonus
6. Tardive dyskinesia
hyperkinetic twisting motion
hyperkinetic dancing ,continuous movements
hyperkinetic flinging movements of extremties
hyperkinetic dyskesia of habitual spasmodic movemets or vocalizations
hyperkinetic dyskinesia of very rapid muscle jerks
hyperkinetic dyskinesia of the oral and lingual region causing chorea-like movements
dyskinesia that increases resistance to passive limb movement, charactorized by similtaneous contraction of both extensors and flexors
ie- Clasp knife and Cogwheel with Parkinson's
Dyskenisia that distorts the body position...
writer's cramp
Spasmotic dysphonia
rhytmic oscillating movements, some while resting, some postural, and some intentional
Describe an intentional tremor
irregular, oscillating movements when trying to move towards a target, appendicular ataxia
Name 4 treatments for Parkinsons
1. Dopamine replacement
2. Pallidotomy- cut GP to reduce inhibition of thalmus
3. Stimulator implantation
4. Transplant of stem cells...
Describe Parkinsonism
symmetrical, withouttremor, non-responsive to L-dopa treatments, no target neurons
1. Abrupt onset
2. Multisystem atrophy
3. Progressive supranuclear palsy
Multisystem atrophy from parkinsonism causes?
1. Striatonigral degeneration- L-dopa ineffective because target neurons are lost
Shy-drager syndrome
atrophy of intermediolateral cellcolumn, producing Parkinsonian symptoms plus autonomic dysfunction
What do the symptoms of olivopontocerebellar atrophy cause?
parkinsonism with ataxia
What does Progressive supranuclear palsy cause?
1.Widespread neurodegeneration in the midbrain-diencephalon juction,
2.loss of vertical eye movement
3.wide stare,
4.rigidy of neck
5. bradykinesis
6. frequent falls
7. dementia
1. hyperkinetic disorder
2. Infarct or lesion of subthalamic nucleus
3. disinhibition of thalmus and inability to "brake"
4. Causes unilateral flinging movements usually uppers
Huntington's disease
1. hyperkinetic disorder caused by degeneration of GABAergic neurons of putamen and caudate
2. Initially effects indirect pathway
3. Eventually effecting both pathways leading to hypokinesis
4. loss of impulse control and dementia
5. autosomal dominant, triplet-repeat disease
Describe the steps in the circut of papez.
1. Mamillary body send emotion signal to spinal tracts
2. Mamillary body also send signal to thalmus
3. Thalmus then sends it to the cingulate gyrus
4 the cingulate gyrus then sends it to the Hippocampus
5. the hippocampus the sends it back to the mamillary body
What are some of the inputs to the limbic system.
1. cortex
2. thalmus
3. septal areas
4. amygdela
5. rapha nuclei
6. ventral tegmental area
7. locus ceruleus
What are the outputs of the limbic system?
Two general directions:
1. Cortex and thalmus( inner emotion)
2. Hypothalmus , brainstem and spinal cord (outward emotion)
The sepatl area, preoptic area, ant. hypothalmus and amygdala all have outputs via what pathway?>
The medial forebrains bundle or the ventral amygdalofugal pathway, leading out to the:
1. reticular formation nuclei
2. vental tegmental area and substancia nigra
3. locus ceruleus
4. raphe nuclei of brainstem
5. solitary nucleus
6. Autonomic nuclei of Spinal cord
7. dorsal nucleus of vagus
What amygdala group of nuclei recieves input from the olfactory nuclei?
Corticomedial group
Afferent fibers to the amygdala come from?
1. mediodorsal thalamic nuc
2. septal nuc
3. hypothalamic nuc
4. monoaminergic nuc
5. parabrachial nuc
6. cingulate
7. olfactory
8. temporal
9. prefrontal cortex
Stria terminalis follows what structure with what information?
It follows the tail and body of the caudate to terminate in the septal area and the ventral hypothalmus with efferent amygdala output
Name the parellel circuits through the basal ganglia-
1. Motor, Oculomotor, prefrontal , and limbic
Describe the parellel path for motor output through the basal ganglia-
1. areas 1-7
2. direct and indirect pathways to the VA, VL and brainstem
3. Primary, premotor and supplementory motor cotex( areas 4 and 6)
4. Control of lateral and medial pathways
Describe the parellel pathway through the basal ganglia for the oculomotor system....
1. Parietal and prefrontal cortex
2. input to caudate, output to VA, MD, and superior colliculus
3. Frontal supplementary eye fields.
4. Control of eye movements and especially saccades
Describe the parellel pathway through the basal ganglia for the prefrontal system....
1. parietal and premotor cortex
2. Input to head of caudate, output via the VA and MD through the BG and thalmus
3. Prefrontal cortex
4. Executive and cognitive func.
Describe the parallel circuts through the basal ganglia for the limbic system...
1. Temporal to hippocampus and amygdala
2. Nucleus accumbens and ventral striatum, outputs via MD and VA
3.Anterior portions of limbic lobe
4. Emotions, motivations, learning and memory