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64 Cards in this Set

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Function of the cerebellum
Regulates posture and coordinates motor acts across synergistic groups
Lesions to cerebellum result in _
Disturbances of gait, balance and stability and diminished accuracy - THINK DRUNK PERSON
Also affect ability to improve motor skills
In terms of gross structure cerebellum consists of two hemispheres that are continuous at _ through "intermediate zone"
VERMIS
There are three pathways into and out of cerebellum - these are _
CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLES - superior, middle and inferior
Cerebellum can be divided anatomically into 3 lobes - name them
Anterior
Posterior
Flocculonodular
Name 3 layers of cerebellar cortex from superficial to deep
Molecular
Purkinje
Granule cell
These cells are found in Purkinje cell layer and have broad dendritic trees that extend upward into molecular layer, they are GABAergic and are the only cells to send axons from cerebellar cortex to deep nuclei and brainstem
PURKINJE CELLS
These cells are located in granule cell layer, these cells are EXCITATORY and send their axons toward surface of cerebellum where they split into parallel fibers , parallel fibers are intermingled within dendritic trees of Purkinje cells
GRANULE CELLS
These cells are found deep in molecular layer aer inhibitory and have large terminal on Purkinje cells
BASKET CELLS
These cells are found in molecular layer and send inhibitory projections to Purkinje cells
STELLATE CELLS
Found deep in Purkinje cell layer and inhibit granular cells
GOLGI CELLS
These are the most numerous afferent fibers to cerebellum - these are excitatory neurons that arise from spinal cord, vestibular nuclei and CN VIII (vestibular part), RF and deep pontine nuclei
MOSSY FIBERS
Once mossy fibers enter cerebellum they bifurcate and project to _ and _ where they innervate _ and _
DEEP CEREBELLAR NUCLEI

CEREBELLAR CORTEX

GRANULE CELLS

GOLGI CELLS
Mossy fibers excite granule cells which results in increased activity in _ and this more inhibition reaching deep nuclei
PURKINJE CELLS
Excitatory afferent fibers to cerebellum - EXCITATORY, arise from Inferior Olive which gets somatotopic input from dorsal column nuclei, vestibular nuclei, red nucleus, RF, superior colliculus and sensory and motor cortex
CLIMBING FIBERS
Single _ is innervated by one climbing fiber - the interaction between them is strong - EPSP's always result in AP
PURKINJE CELL
This afferent input to cerebellum arises from raphe nuclei and locus ceruleus - function is unclear
MONOAMINERGIC
Site of neuronal integration = consists of Golgi cell axons, granule cell dendrites and mossy fiber terminals (mossy fiber rosette)
CEREBELLAR GLOMERULUS
ALL OF THE AXONS LEAVING CERBELLAR CORTEX COME FROM _
PURKINJE CELLS
Almost all of axons coming from Purkinje cells terminate in _ , and some would go to _
DEEP CEREBELLAR NUCLEI

vestibular nuclei
Almost all of axons leaving THE BODY OF CEREBELLUM originate in _
DEEP NUCLEI (some come from Purkinje cells)
Name deep nuclei of cerebellum - medial to lateral
FASTIGIAL
INTERPOSITUS - globose + emboliform
DENTATE
Each deep nucleus is mapped somatotopically and each serves a different aspect of motor coordination - T/F
TRUE
Name efferents from ICP
Cerebello olivary
Cerebellovestibular
Cerebelloreticular
Name afferents to ICP
Vestibulocerebellar tract
Olivocerebellar tract (climbing fibers)
Dorsal spinocerebellar + cuneocerebellar tracts
Reticulocerebellar tract
All of the afferents to MCP come from _
PONS
Which cerebellar peduncle doesnt have any efferent fibers leaving it
MIDDLE CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE (afferents only - pontocerebellar)
Name afferents to SCP
Ventral spinocerebellar tract
Rostral spinocerebellar tract
Trigeminocerebellar tract
Tectocerebellar tract
Name efferents out of SCP
Cerebellorubral
Dentothalamic
There are three functional subdivisions of cerebellum - name them
Vestibulocerebellum
Spinocerebellum
Cerebrocerebellum
This functional part of cerebellum is concerned with :
- Where is the body in respect to gravity
- Am I moving
- Am I falling
- Are the eyes level?
VESTIBULOCEREBELLUM
What does vestibulocerebellum do
Makes corrections to muscles of trunk
Vestibulocerebellum comprises from _
Flocculonodular lobe and adjacent vermis
CN VIII and vestibular nuclei project to vestibulocerebellum which projects to _ back to _ which activates _
Fastigial nucleus

Vestibular nuclei

Alpha motor neurons
Function of this functional part of cerebellum is to coordinate head and eye movements and regulate gait and posture
VESTIBULOCEREBELLUm
This functional part of cerebellum is concerned with :
- Where are my limbs
- Are the limbs moving
- Are the limbs going where I want them to
SPINOCEREBELLUM
What does spinocerebellum do
MAKE CORRECTIONS TO MUSCLES via vestibulospinal, rubrospinal and corticospinal tracts
This uncrossed tract carries proprioceptive cutaneous information (touch and pressure) , information from muscle spindles, GTO's and joint receptors - name tract and it enters cerebellum through _
DORSAL SPINOCEREBELLAR TRACT

ICP
Where does dorsal spinocerebellar tract synapse
Dorsal nucleus of CLarke
Upper limb equivalent of dorsal spinocerebellar tract
Cuneocerebellar tract
Cuneocerebellar tract ascends in _, synapse in _ and joins _
ML

ACCESSORY CUNEATE NUCLEUS

Dorsal spinocerebellar tract
This tract carries information from tactile afferents and mechanoreceptors from L3-L5, begins in lamina VII, axons CROSS in ventral white commissure and run in ventrolateral funiculus, axons join SCP and CROSS AGAIN to terminate on ipsilateral side of origin - name tract
VENTRAL SPINOCEREBELLAR
This tract sends information comparing what the cortex wants doen and what is actually happening in periphery of cerebellum
VENTRAL SPINOCEREBELLAR
The upper limb equivalent of VENTRAL SPINOCEREBELLAR TRACT - arises from lamina VII and ascends (mainly) uncrossed through ICP (some traverse SCP)
ROSTRAL SPINOCEREBELLAR TRACT
Trigeminocerebellar projections come from _
- Spindles in the muscles of mastication (from mesencephalic nucleus through SCP)

- From spinal trigeminal nucleus through ICP
This functional part of cerebellum is concerned with :
- This is what the cortex wants to do - do the plans look right?
- What adjuctments can we make before we start
Cerebrocerebellum
What does cerebrocerebellum do
Make recommendations to cerebral cortex about motor tasks before they are executed
Is termination of outflow of cerebrocerebellum on same or opposite side of cortical input
SAME
In those part of cerebellum ouput affects descending motor system at brainstem level (red nucleus, CN motor nuclei and vestibular nuclei) - affect motor act WHILE ITS IN PROGRESS
Vestibulocerebellum

Spinocerebellum
This part of cerebellum gets information about command about to be executed so it can modulate motor information before execution of command
CEREBROCEREBELLUM
Is cerebellum functionaly unilateral or contralaterall
UNILATERAL - lesions to cerebellum affect ipsilateral side of body
Signs of vestibulocerebellar damage
ATAXIA
NYSTAGMUS
Inability to relate body position with gravity and associated changes in body motion is called
ATAXIA
Indicates damage to flocculonodular lobe, vestibular nuclei or vestibular origin
NYSTAGMUS
How can nystagmus be induced in healthy individuals
Extreme lateral gaze
Spontaneous nystagmus is associated with _
VERTIGO - "room spinning"
Lesions to these affect most precise movements of extremities
Spinocerebellum
Cerebrocerebellum
Lack of coordination on finger to nose test or heel-to - shin test is called _
Asynergy
Inability to perform repetitive tasks (supination/pronation) is called _
Dysdiadochinesia - lesions result in errors in timing - delay in initiation and termination, sequence of movement is disrupted but velocity is normal
Characterized by deterioration of performance as the motor act progresses - often called " intention tremor" - during the task patient cannot place limb in correct place - ask someone to touch nose - with this their finger takes a wandering course
DYSMETRIA
Because of poor timing patient breaks down complex action into number of smaller sequences - cannot perform motor tasks unconsciously - everything they do is broken into smaller movements
DECOMPOSITION
With cerebellar damage muscle stretch reflex is _
PENDULAR and there is hypotonia
Cerebellar damage results in less or more facilitation to gamma neurons - this reduces gain of negative feedback
LESS
Why is there hypotonia in people with cerebellar damaage
There is less activity in gamma motor neurons - so there is less feedback to alpha motor neurons (spindles are too lax, there is less tone and no dampening after MSR)