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76 Cards in this Set

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What takes in information about place and turns it into a timed output?
Cerebellum
Hallmark of cerebellum dysfunctions
intention tremor, moving past time, and inappropriate timing of activatoin of agonists and antagonists
3 major functions of the cerebellum
1. Equilibrium to help to control upright stance along with vision and vestibular sense.
2. Posture, reinforces axial m. tone to maintain muscles of the axial skeleton and allows the distal m. to be ready for movement
3. intended movements, works with cerebral cortex to generate the motor program for planning and excecution of intended movements
what is cerebellum derived from?
metencephalon. It develops as an outgrowth of the alar plate of the metencephalon
what is structure of cerebellum called?
rhombic sip
most anterior part of cerebellum to most posterior part
inferior colliculis
superior medulary velum
fourth ventricle
arbor vitae white matter
cerebellar cortex
White matter in middle of cerebellum
Arbor Vitae
What connect arbor vitae to inferior colliculis?
medulary velum
what is at midline between two cerebellum hemispheres?
Vermis
Anterior lobe of cerebellum composition
1,2,3,4,5 lobules
Deals with posture
What seperates anterior and posterior lobes of cerebellum?
primary fissure
Posteror lobe of cerebellum compostin
made up of lobules 6-10
deals wit inteded movements
Most posterior part of cerebellum
Flocculonodular lob
What seperate Floculonduar from posterior lobe?
posterolateral fissure
What does flocconodular lobe have connections to?
to and from systems. it is very important in vestibular system
What does vermis of cerebellum control?
postural m.
What do cerebellum hemispheres control?
extremity, or distal m.
What is in the center of the saggital section of the cerebellum?
folium
Describe the sagittal section of the cerebellum
Horizontal row of cells that stretches from midline out laterally.Every element of corical structure is incorporated into the folium
2 major divisions of the cerebellum
1. Cortico gray matter
2. Deep cerebellar nuclei "dentate matter"
fine ridges or bumps lateral to the deep cerebellar nuclei
folia of cerebellar cortes
Where are the cerebellar deep nuclei?
inside cerebellar cortex white matter
how many nucleus are in each cerebellar hemisphere?
4 per hemi
what are the four cerebellar deep nuclei
Fastigial nucleus
glosbose nucleus
emboliform nucleus
dentate nucleus
Fastigial nucleus of cerebellum
related to vermis only. It is the vestigial nucleu. It is very medial in cerebellar and is important for postural movements.
Nucleus in cerebellum that is related to vestibular function
fastigial nucleus
Globuse nucleus
combines with emoliform n. to form interposed n. it is related to the cortex
Interposed n. of cerebellum
embolism n. + globose n.
Deals with the intermediate cortex. It is found between the fastigial and dentate n.
Dentate nucleus
in lateral cerebellum. It is associated with lateral hemisphere. It controls fine control of movements
what are folia of cerebellum?
each lobule has sublobules and folia are subdivisons of the sublobules. They are the basic unit of the cerebellum bc every element of cortical structure is incorporated into follium
three layers of cerebellar cortex
molecular
purkinje
granular
purkinje cell layer of cerebellum
marjor output cell of cerebellar cortex. It is a huge dendritic tree. It contains only the cell bodies of the purkinje cells
major output cell of cerebellar cortex
purkinje cell
where are granular cell axons?
in molecular layer
granular layer
granule cells. The axons of granule cells come up through the granular layer and contacts the purkinje cell layer. parallel fibers contact and excite purkinje cell dendrites and run the entire length of the folia
layot of purkinge cell dendrites
they are in one plane so they are exposed to many fibers running acroos cerebellum
afferents to cerebellum
1. climbing fibers from inferior olive. fibers come in and go right to dendrites of pukinje cell. for each purkinje cell there is only one climbing fiber
2. mossy fibers come into the cerebellar cortex and synapse on billions of granulecell dendrites
granular cells
cells whose bodies reside in the granular layer and are activated by mossy fibers they send axons called parallel fibers into the molecular layer
glomerus
where mossy fibers end
golgi cell
cells that areactivated by the parallel fibers of granular cells and in turn inhibi the granular cells.
only outpput of cerebellum
purkinje cellls
inferior cerebellar peduncle
input to cerebellum. Contains output tract to the vestibular nuclei from the fastigial n.
superior cerebellar peduncle
major source of outputs for the cerebellum. Contains thedentatothalmic tract as well as other ouputs
middle cerebellar peduncle
input to cerebellum. contains pontocerebellar tract
basket cells
inhibit purkinje cells. Basket cells are arranged so that they project to sagittal folium columns of purkinje fibers
what surrounds purkinje cell bodies?
pipcaux
Where do ALL climbing fibers come from?
inferior olive and the synapse on only ONE purkinje dendrites
Where do mossy fibers come from?
pre cerebellar nuclei. The pontine nuclei is the largest single source
what do mossy fibers come into contact with?
granual cells
What do purkinje cells inhibit?
deep nuclear cells
What are excitatory synapses in the cerebellum?
climbing fibers, mossy fibers, and parallel fibers from granular cells

mossy fibers excite granular cells and granular cells excite dendrites
What are inhibitory synapses in cerebellar cortex?
Basically everything except three excitatory.

Basket cells, golgi cells, purkinje cell
complex spinke vs. simple spke
complex spike is a climbing fiber and it takes longer.Complex spike deal with changes in what is expected and wht actually happens. simple spike are associated with activation through mossy fibers they are fast. Both depolarize purkinje cells
three main outputs for cerebellar nuclei
1.for equilibrium. vermis-fastigial n.- vestibular app.
2.for posture. intermed. cortex-interposed n.-red nucleus
3.for fine movment. cerebellar hemi-dentate n.-ventrolateral thalmus
somatotopy of cerebellar cortex
mosaic representation.
All cerebellar afferents
skin, muscle, viscera, visual, hearing, limbic, olfaction
Describe cortical output
timed bursts of inhibition. Cerebellum changes place to time
What disturbances are caused if cerebellar problem?
disturbance in timeing of muscle movements
Cerebellar dysfunctions
intentional tremors
decompostion of movement
pastpointing
dysdiadochonkisis
nystatgumus(eyes jump out)
ataxia of thought
Single largest input to the cerebellum
opposite cerebellum throught the basilar pontine nuclei
intentional tremor
inability to stop an intentional movement on time resulting in an overshoot and compensation
connections of anterior lobe of cerebellum
intermediat cortex-interposed n.-superior cerebellar peducncel-rednucleus-spinal level
connections of flocculonodular lobe
direct and indirect connections to and from cerebellum and vestibular n. provide substrate for cerebella to help with equilibrium
three legs of equilibrium
visiion
cerebellum
vestibular n.

equilibrium requires two of three legs
connections of the neocerebellum
hemisphere impacts dentate, signal moves to ventral lateral thalmus which imppacts premotor and motor areas of cortex
ataxia
inability to coordinate voluntary movement
what is the longest part of rxn time.
for cortex to send info to cerbellum, pons, an inf olive
what does lateral funicular system impact?
Flexors: Rubrospinal, corticopsinal, medulaar reticulospinal
Waht does ventral fanicular system impact?
extensor muscle tone: VESTIBULOPSINAL and pontine reticulospinal

They both impaact muscle tone
When does cerebellum uncergo tremndous development
postnatlly
3 elements of equilibrium
vision
vestibular
intact cerebellum

need 2/3
3 lobes of cerebellum
posterior-fine movement
ant-posture
flocculonodular
number of lobes in cerebeluum
10 lobes. 1-5 in ant. 6-9 in post. lobe 10 makes up flocculonodular lobe
Nucleus under vermis
fastigial n. has tight connections with vestibular function
What cerebellar structures aid with axial muscle?
intermediate cortex and vermis.

Dentate n. is in involved with appendicular (lateral)
basket cell
interneuron of cerebellar cortex. forms basket around pukije cell boddy to inhibit them.