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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Most common CNS excitatory neurotransmitter in CNS
Glutamate
Glutamate receptor subtypes
AMPA / Kainate - excitatory
NMDA - modulation of synaptic activity
Metabotropic - Activation of 2nd messenger systems
Most common CNS inhibitory neurotransmitter
GABA
Gaba receptor subtypes
Gaba A and Gaba B = Inhibitory in body
Gaba C = inhibitory retina
Acetylcholine receptors for muscle contraction
nicotinic
Acetylcholine autonomic receptors
nicotinic
Acetylcholine receptors for parasympathetic functions
muscarinic
Norepinephrine receptors for sympathetic ganglia
Alpha and Beta
Dopamine receptors
D1-5 Midbrain
Serotonin receptor type
5HT-1a-f
Histamine Receptors
H1-3

Hypothalamus and reticular formation
Glycine receptors
Glycine

Spinal cord
Peptides
Numerous receptors throughout the CNS
White matter
Areas made up of primarily myelinated axons
Grey Matter
Areas made up mainly of cell bodies
Examples of grey matter in the brain
Cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, and CN nuclei
Conveys mainly sensory information in the spinal cord
Dorsal nerve roots
Conveys mainly efferent motor signals
Ventral nerve roots
Sympathetic "Fight or Flight"
Pupil dilation
Bronchodilation
Cardiac acceleration
Inhibition of digestion
Piloerection
Stimulation of glucose release
Systemic vasoconstriction
Parasympathetic "Rest or Digest"
Pupil constriction
Bronchoconstriction
Cardiac deceleration
Stimulation of digestion
Salivation, lacrimation
Intestinal vasodilation
Most important motor pathway in humans
Corticospinal Tract
Olfactory nerve
CN I
Optic Nerve
CN II
Oculomotor nerve
CN III
Trochlear nerve
CN IV
Trigeminal nerve
CN V
Abducens nerve
CN VI
Facial nerve
CN VII
Vestibulocochlear nerve
CN VIII
Glossopharyngeal nerve
CN IX
Vagus nerve
CN X
Spinal Accessory nerve
CN XI
Hypoglossal nerve
CN XII
Difficulty with calculations, R-L confusion, inability to identify fingers, difficulties with written language
Gerstmann's syndrome
Abnormalities in motor conceptualization,planning and execution
apraxia
Unawareness of a deficit
anosognosia
Repeating a single action over and over without progressing to the next one
perseverate
Tendency to stare passively and to respond to commands only after a long delay
abulic
Characteristic unsteady magnetic gate and urinary incontinence
Frontal lobe lesion
Inability to recognize faces
prosopagnosia
Inability to recognize colors
achromatopsia
persistence or reappearance of an object viewed earlier
palinopsia
Central fixation point for the eye
fovea

1-2 degrees of visual space, half of nerve fibers
Oval region surrounding the fovea
macula

central 5 degrees of visual space
Where the axons gather to form the optic nerve
optic disc

no photo receptors over optic disc
High spatial and temporal resolution, detect colors
Cones
Cells excited by light in the center of their receptive field ad inhibited by light in the surrounding area
On-center cells
Inhibited by light in the center of their receptive field and excited in the surrounding area
Off-center cells
Sensitive to fine visual detail
P cells - ore numerous

subdivision of retinal ganglion cell
Sensitive to gross stimulus features and large receptive fields
M cells

subdivision of retinal ganglion cell
Project to the magnocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus
M cells
Project to the parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate
P cells
Nasal (medial) fibers for each eye...
cross over in the optic chiasm
Lesions of the optic chiasm produce
bitemporal visual field defects
Lesions of the eye, retina or optic nerves create
monocular visual field defects
Brodmann number for primary visual cortex
area 17
Cells for Motion/spatial analysis for visual cortex
M cells - Dorsolateral parietotemporal cortex

projecting mainly to 4Calpha
Cells for form and color analysis in visual cortex
P cells - Inferior occiptotemporal cortex

Projecting mainly to 4Cbeta
Positive phenomena of light flashes may indicate...
retinal detachment
Positive phenomena of rainbow-colored halos around onjects may indicate...
acute glaucoma
A circumscribed region of visual loss
scotoma
A visual field defect in the same region for both eyes
Homonymous defect
Indistinct vision improved by corrective lenses
Refractive error
Bright, uniformed flashes, streaks or balls of light
Photopsias
Photopsias produced by retinal shear or optic nerve disease
Phosphenes
Seeing structures in one's own eye
Entopic phenomena
Distortion or misinterpretation of visual perception
Illusion
Perception of something that is not present
Hallucination
Monocular scotoma
lesion of the retina
Common causes of monocular vision loss or scotoma
glaucoma, optic neuritis, elevated ICP, anterior ischemic neuropathy, optic glioma, schwannoma, meningioma, and trauma
Three main causes of impaired blood flow in the opthalmic artery and it's branches are
emboli
stenosis
vasculitis
Retinal artery has two major branches, occlucion of one can cause
altitudinal scotoma
Ischemia to meyer's loop results in
contralateral superior quadrantanopia

Pie in the sky
Inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the optic nerve that is related to MS
Optic neuritis