Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/50

Click to flip

50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Recurrent Laryngeal nerve The recurrent laryngeal nerve is a branch of which cranial nerve?
CN X
Recurrent Laryngeal nerve Which muscles does it supply?
intrinsic muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid muscle
Recurrent Laryngeal nerve What structure does the right recurrent laryngeal nerve wrap around?
right subclavian artery
Recurrent Laryngeal nerve What structure does the left recurrent laryngeal nerve wrap around?
arch of the aorta and the ligamentum arteriosum
Recurrent Laryngeal nerve In what kind of surgery can this nerve be damaged in?
thyroid surgery
Recurrent Laryngeal nerve What happens when this nerve gets damaged?
hoarseness
Name the layers of the scalp
skin, connective tissue, aponeurosis, loose connective tissue, pericranium (SCALP)
Name the meninges.
Dura, arachnoid, and pia (DAP)
Recurrent Laryngeal nerve What space is found between the dura and arachnoid?
subdural space
Between what meninges is the subarachnoid space located?
between the arachnoid and the pia
What is found in the subarachnoid space?
CSF
In which scalp layer are the emissary veins found?
loose connective tissue
Nerve Injury Injury to what nerve causes loss of dorsiflexion of foot
common peroneal (L4-S2) (PED = Peroneal Everts and Dorsiflexes)
Nerve Injury Injury to what nerve causes loss of plantar flexion
tibial (L4-S3) (TIP = Tibial Inverts and Plantarflexes; if injured, can't stand on TIPtoes)
Nerve Injury Loss of Knee Jerk?
Femoral (L2-L4)
Nerve Injury Loss of hip adduction? Roots?
Obturator (L2-L4)
Nerve Injury In adults, where does the spinal cord end?
L1-L2
Nerve Injury Where does the subarachnoid space end?
S2
Nerve Injury divide the 31 spinal nerves into their divisions
8Cs, 12Ts, 5Ls, 5Ss, 1 coccygeal
What cell is responsible for physical support and repair, as well as K+ metabolism
astrocytes
what are the phagocytic cells of the nervous system
microglia
what cells produce myelin in the CNS
oligodendricytes
what cells produce myelin in the PNS
Schawnn cells
What three structures form the BBB
Choroid plexus epithelium, Intracerebral capillary endothelium, Arachnoid (remember CIA)
Do nonpolar/lipid soluble substances or polar, water-soluble substances pass through the BBB more easily?
Nonpolar/lipid soluble
Why is L-dopa, not dopamine, the treatment of choice in Parkinson's Disease
L-dopa crosses the BBB
What are the functions of the hypothalamus (7)
Thirst, Adenohypophysis control, Neurohypophysis hormone synthesis, Hunger, Autonomic regulation (including circadian rhythms), Temperature regulation, Sexual urges (TAN HATS)
anterior hyporthalamus control function?
Cools body when hot.
Anterior Cooling = A/C
Does the posterior hypothalamus control heat conservation?
Yes, think no Posterior hypothalamus = poikilotherm (cold blooded snake)
Which nucleus is responsible for hunger?
Lateral nucleus
Which nucleus is responsible for satiety?
ventromedial nucleus (without which you grow ventrally and medially
Which nuclei of the hypothalamus project axons into the posterior pituitary?
supraoptic nuclei (ADH) and paraventricular nuclei (oxytocin)
What is the function of the lateral geniculate nucleus?
Visual pathway (remember Lateral is needed to Look)
What is the function of the medial geniculate nucleus?
Auditory pathway (remember Medial is to hear Music)
Function of the ventral posterior nucleus, lateral part (VPL)?
receives body senses (proprioception, pressure, pain, touch, vibration)
Function of the ventral posterior nucleus, medial part (VPM)?
receives facial sensations, including pain
Ventral Nuclei (VA/VL) functions?
Motor
What are the functions of the limbic system?
Feeding, Fighting, Feeling, Flight, and Sex (the five Fs)
What two areas does the hippocampus project to?
the subiculum (mammillary nuclei) and the septal area
Trace the pathway from Mammillary body to hippocampus.
Mammillary body, anterior nucleus of thalamus, cyngulate gyrus, entorhinal cortex, hippocampus
Basal ganglia Describe the primary function fo the basal ganglia.
The basal ganglia mediates voluntary movements and postural adjustments
Basal ganglia What are the roles of the direct and indirect pathways?
Indirect pathway inhibits movement; Direct pathway facilitates movement.
Basal ganglia Delineate the flow of processing in the direct pathway.
Putamen (inhibitory) => Gpi (inhibitory) => Thalamus: inhibition of Gpi => activation of thalamus
Basal ganglia Delineate the flow of processing in the indirect pathway.
Putamen (inhibitory) => GPe (inhibitory) => {STN (excitatory)=>GPi (inhibitory)} =>Thalamus; induces excitation of Gpi => inhibition of thalamus
What is the anatomical defect in Parkinson's Dz?
Loss of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopamine output to putamen => activation of indirect pathway and inhibition of direct pathway
What is the clinical presentation and cause of chorea?
sudden, jerky, purposeless movements; caused by basal ganglia lesionChorea= dancing, think choreography
What is the clinical presentation and cause of athetosis?
slow, writhing movements, especially of fingers; caused by basal ganglia lesion
What is the clinical presentation of hemiballismus?
sudden, wild flailing of 1 arm; half ballistic= as in throwing a baseball
What is the anatomical defect in hemiballismus?
contralateral subthalamic nucleus lesion
Where is the primary sensory cortex (S1) located?
anterior aspect of parietal lobe