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277 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
maintains blood brain barrier cell
astrocytes
marker for this cell is GFAP
astrocytes
repair cell of CNS
astrocyte
inner lining of ventricle cell
ependymal
phagocytosis in CNS cell
microglia
central myelin production cell
oligodendrocytes
peripheral myelin production cel
schwann cell
CNS cell that arises from mesoderm
microglia
where do all cns cells except microglia arise?
ectoderm
cns cells with small irregular nuclei and relatively little cytoplasm
microglia
what do hiv-infected microglia form?
multinucleated giant cells
can myelinate up to 30 axons
oligodendrocytes
predominant glial cell in white matter
oligodendrocytes
cell destroyed in multiple sclerosis
oligodendrocytes
cell that can only myelinate one axon
schwann cell
cell that promotes axonal regeneration
schwann cell
nerve layer that invests single nerve fiber
endoneurium
nerve layer that invests fascicle of nerve fibers
perineurium
nerve layer that surround entire nerve
epinerium
small encapsulated nerve endings found in dermis of digits and palms and soles
meissner's corpuscles
corpuscle involved in light discriminatory touch
meissner's corpuscles
large encapsulated nerve endings in deep layers of skin
pacinian corpuscles
corpuscles involved in pressure, course touch, vibration
pacinian corpuscles
nerve endings in dermis of fingertips and hair
merkel's discs
what is involved in light, crude touch
merke's discs
what makes endolymph
stria vascularis
what detects linear acceleration
utricle and saccule
what detects angular acceleration
semicircular canals
where in the cochlea picks up high-frequency sounds?
base
where in the cochlea picks up low-frequency sound
apex of the cochlea
what are characteristics of the base of the cochlea?
narrow and stiff
what are characteristics of the apex of the cochlea?
wide and flexible
what type of hearing loss occurs first in the elderly?
high frequency hearing loss
name the three structures of the BBB
tight junctions between endothelail cells, basememt membrane, astrocyte processes
give two areas where brain has fenestrated capillaries
area postrema and neurohypophysis
thirst and water center in hypothalamus
supraoptic nucleus
part of hypothalamus that produces releasing factors
adenohypophysis
part of hypothalamus that releases synthesized hormones
neurohypophysis
destruction of this area in hypothalamus leads to anorexia and starvation
lateral nucleus
what area in hypothalamus regulates parasympathetic temperature
anterior (A/C)
what area of hypothalamus regulates sympathetic temperature?
posterior area
area of hypothalamus that regulates circadian rhythmn
suprachiasmatic nuclei
area of hypothalamus involved in sexual urges and emotions
septal nucleus
destruction of this area in hypothalamus leads to obesity
ventromedial (i.e. you grow ventral and medial)
what is made in the supraoptic nuclei of hypothalamus
ADH
what is made in the paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus
oxytocin
which area of pituitary receives ADH and oxytocin
neurohypophysis (posterior)
define major function for thalamus
major relay for ascneding sensory information
visual nucleus of thalamus
lateral geniculate (light)
sound nucleus of thalamus
medial geniculate (sound)
part of thalamus responsible for body sensation
VPL
part of thalamus responsible for facial sensation
VPM
what are the motor nuclei of the thalamus?
ventral anterior and ventral lateral
what are the 5 F's of the ventral system
feeding, fighting, feeling, flight, fucking
main function of basal ganglia
voluntary movement and postural adjustments
name the direct overall impact of parkinsons' on dopamine receptors
inhibit stimulation of direct pathway, inhibit inhibition of indirect = so overall inhibitory
what gives inhibitory signal to the subthalamic nucleus?
globus pallidus externa
what gives excitatory signal to globus palllidus
subthalamic nucleus
what is the function of the arcuate fasciulus
connect wrnicke's area to broca's area
lesion here leads to lack of social judement
frontal lobes
area of motor cortex responsible for feet
medial area
area of motor cortex responsible for face
lateral area
what artery near circle of willis is not actually included in it?
PCA
most common circle of willis aneurysm that can cause visual field defects
anterior communicating
common area of aneurysm that causes CN III palsy
posterior communciating
arteries of stroke that supply internal capsule, etc.
lateral striate (From MCA)
stroke in this area of circle of willis will cause sensory and motor defects + aphasia
anterior circle
stroke in this area of circle of willis will cause cranial nerve defects, cerebellar defects, coma
posterior circle
what is the main location of CSF return via arachnoid granulations
superior sagittal sinus
where are the most common vertebral disk herniations
L5-S1
how does the lateral ventricle communicate w/ the 3rd ventricle
foramen of monro
how does the 3rd ventricle communicate with the 4th ventricle
aqueduct of sylvius
how does the 4th ventricle communicate with the subarachnoid space laterally and medially?
foramina of luschka (lateral), foramina of magendia (medial)
how many spinal nerves are there?
31
where does the subarachnoid space extend to in adults?
S2
where do you do lumbar punctures?
l3-L4, L4-L5
where is the lower border of the adult spinal cord
L1
at what level of the pelvis do you do a lumbar puncture?
iliac crest
name the order of structures pierced in a lumbar puncture
1. skin, 2. ligaments (supraspinous, interspinous, ligamentum flavum) 3. epidrual space 4. dura mater 5. subdural space 6. arachnoid 7. subarachnoid space - CSF
how is the topology of the lateral corticospianl tract arranged (from arms to legs)?
arms are medial, legs are lateral
what tract carries info about upper body pressure, vibration, touch proprioception?
fasciculus cuneatus
what tract carried info about lower body pressure, vibration, touch, proprioception?
fasciculus gracilis
what is more medial, fasciculus cuneatus or fasciculus gracilis?
fasciculus gracilis
how are the spinal thalamic tracts arranged (sacral to cervical)
sacral more dorsal, cervical more ventral
where is the 1st synpase of the spinothalamic tract?
ipsilateral gray matter
where is the 1st synapse of the lateral coticospinal tract
cell body of the anterior horn of the spinal cord
what 3 cranial nerves lie medially in brain stem?
III, VI, XII
what cranial nerve nuclei are in the midbrain?
III, IV,
what cranial nerve nuclei are in the pons?
V, VI, VII, VIII
what cranial nerve nuclei are in the medulla
IX, X, XI, XII
for cranial nerves, what function do medial and lateral cell bodies do?
medial = motor, lateral = sensory
what nerve is responsible for pupil constriction
CN III
what nerve is responsible for eyelid opening?
CN III
what nerve is responsible for salivation
cn VII
what nerve is responsible for lacrimation
CN VII
what nerve closes the eyelid?
cn VII
what nerve gets taste from posterior 1/3 of tongue
CN IX
what nerve innervates the parotid gland?
cn IX
what nerve is responsible for palate elevatoin?
cn X
what nerve is responsible for talking?
cn X
what nerve is responsible for taste in the epiglottic region
cn X
what muscle does the left recurrent laryngeal nerve not innervate?
cricothyroid nerve
what does the nucleius solitarius do?
visceral sensory info (taste, baroreceptors)
what does the nucleus ambigiuus do
motor for paharynx, larynx, upper esophogus (ie. swallowing, palate elevation)
what does the dorsal motor nucleus do?
sends paraysympathetic fibers to internal viscerae
what 3 cranial nerves does the nucleus solitarius innervate?
vii, ix, x
what 3 cranial nerves does the dorsla motor nucleus innervate?
ix, x, xi
what cranial nerve comes out of the cribiform plate?
CN I
what 3 structures go out of the optic canal
cn ii, opthalmic artery, central retinal vein
what 5 structures go out of hte superior orbital fissure?
cn iii, iv, v(1), vi, opthalmic vein
what goes out of the foramen rotundum
cn v2
what goes out of the foramen ovale?
cn v3
what goes out of the foramen spinosum
middle meningeal artery
through what bone do you need to cross to get to middle cranial fossa?
sphenoid bone
what cranial nerves are in the middle cranial fossa?
II-VI
what cranial nerves are in the posterior cranial fossa?
VII-XII
what 2 nerves go through the internal audiotory meatus?
VII, VIII
what 4 structures go through the jugular foramen?
ix, x, xi, jugular vein
what goes through the hypoglossal canal?
cn XII
what 3 structures go through the foramen magnum?
spinal roots of cn xi, brain stem, vertebral arteries
what 6 structures are in the cavernous sinus?
cn III, IV, V1, V2, VI, postganglionic sympathetic fibers
what is the structure in the cavernous sinus that is free floating
cn VI
what 3 things happen in cavernous sinus syndrome (compression)
ophtlamoplegia, opthalmic and mandibular sensory loss
what is the bone right below the pituitary?
sphenoid bone
what is the structure right above the pituitary?
optic chiasm
what 3 muscles close the jaw?
masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid
what nerve innervates all the muscles of mastication?
v3
what muscle opesn the jaw?
lateral pterygoid
what nerve innervates structures with -glossus
cn ix
what is the exception to the -glossus rule?
palatoglossus, innervated by cn x
what cranial nerves are in the posterior cranial fossa?
VII-XII
what 2 nerves go through the internal audiotory meatus?
VII, VIII
what 4 structures go through the jugular foramen?
ix, x, xi, jugular vein
what goes through the hypoglossal canal?
cn XII
what 3 structures go through the foramen magnum?
spinal roots of cn xi, brain stem, vertebral arteries
what innervates all the muscles with palate in their names
cn x
what 6 structures are in the cavernous sinus?
cn III, IV, V1, V2, VI, postganglionic sympathetic fibers
what is the exception to the rule that cn x innervates all muscles with palate in the name
tensor veli palatini (v3)
what is the structure in the cavernous sinus that is free floating
cn VI
what is the funciton of the inferior oblique muscle?
adduct, elevate, extort
what 3 things happen in cavernous sinus syndrome (compression)
ophtlamoplegia, opthalmic and mandibular sensory loss
what is the function of the superior oblique muscle?
adduct, depress, intort
what is the bone right below the pituitary?
sphenoid bone
what are the 2 nerves responsible for the pupillary light reflex?
afferent = cn II, efferent = cn III
what is the structure right above the pituitary?
optic chiasm
define the pupillary light reflex
light goes to pretectal nucleus, then to edinger-westphal nucleus, then bilaterally through cn III to both eyes
what 3 muscles close the jaw?
masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid
what does the kuh kuh kuh test
cn x, palate elevation
what nerve innervates all the muscles of mastication?
v3
what does la la la test
cn XII, tongue
what muscle opesn the jaw?
lateral pterygoid
what does mi mi mi test
cn vii, lips
what nerve innervates structures with -glossus
cn XII
trace the papez circuit
hippocampus to mammary body to anterior thalamus to cingulate to entorhinal cortex back to hippocampus
what is the exception to the -glossus rule?
palatoglossus, innervated by cn x
what is the papez circuit responsible for?
learning/memory
what happens when you destroy the subthalamic nucleus?
contralateral hemiballismus
what happens whe you destroy the cerebellar vermis?
truncal ataxia, dysarthria
define dysarthria
difficult in speech articulation
lesion in cerebellar hemisphere
intention tremor, limb ataxia
lesion in basal ganglia
tremor at rest, chorea, athetosis
lesion in bilateral mamillary bodies
wernick-korsakoff
what happens in lesion in reticular activating system
coma
lesion in right parietal lobe
agnosia of the contralateral side of the world
lesion in the frontal lobe
emergence of primitive reflex
define agnosia
loss of ability to recognize objects
bilateral lesion of amygdala
kluver bucy (hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibited behavior)
lesion in arcuate fasciculus
conduction aphasia: good compreshension/speech but with poor reptition
lesion in wernicke's area
sensory aphasia with poor comprehension
lesion in broca's area
motor aphasia with good comprehension
what happens to weakness, atrophy, fasciculation, reflexes, tone, and babinski in an upper motor neuron lesion?
weak, increased reflex, increased tone, + babinski
what happens to weakness, atrophy, fasciculatoin, reflexes, tone and babinski in a lower motor neuron lesion
weak, atrophy ,fasciculations, decrease reflex, decrase tone
anterior horn lesion diseases (2)
poliomyelitis and werdnig hoffman
wwhat are consequences of anterior horn lesion?
lower motor neuron lesion (flaccid paralysis)
define syringomyelia
enalrgement of the central canal of the spinal cord
what are the consequences of syringomyelia?
bilaterally loss of pain and temperature sensation
what is often present in those with synringomyelia?
arnold-chiari malformation
where is syringomyelia most commly found?
C8-T1
what are the conseuqneces of tabes dorsalis?
impaired proprioception and locomotor ataxia
what disease causes tabes dorsalis?
tertiary sphilis
name 4 associations with tabes dorsalis
charcot's joints, shooting pain, argyll robertson pupils, loss of DTRs
name 5 consequences of brown-sequard syndrome?
ipsilateral umn lesions, ipsilateral loss of vibration/propriosception, contralateral pain/temperature loss, ipsilateral loss of all sensation at level of lesion, lmn signs at lesion
what occurs if brown-sequard is above T1
horner's synrome
name the 3 neuron pathway for the oculosympathetic pahtway (horner's)
hypothalamus to superior cervical ganglion then to pupil, eyelids, sweat glands
where does tongue deviate in cn XII lesion?
towardes lesion
where does jaw deviate in cn V lesion?
towards lesion
where happens in unilateral cerebellum lesion?
patient falls towards lesion
where does uvula deviate in cn x lesion?
away from lesion
how does the head turn and shoulder drop in cn xi lesion?
head can't turn towards contralateral side, shoulder drop on side of lesion
umn cn vii lesion
contralateral paralysis of lower face
lmn lesion of cn VII
ipsilateral paralysis of upper and lower face
define bell's palsy
ipsilateral facial paralysis with inability to close eye on affected side
what is destroyed in bell's palsy
facial nerve nucleus or direct efferent fibers
name 5 disease with bell's palsy
aids, lyme disease, sarcoidosis, tumors, diabetes
what is compressed in cingulate herniation?
ACA
what is the herniation under falx cerebri?
cingulate herniation?
what can result in transtentorial herniation?
coma and death when compress brain stem
where is the uncus?
medial temporal lobe
what herniates through the foramen magnum?
cerebellar tonsils
what is the immediate consequence of cerebellar tonsillar herniation?
repsiratory failure and death
name 4 consequence of uncal herniation and what lesions cause these problems to occur?
first sign: ipsilateral dilated pupil/ptosis (stretch cn III), contralateral homonymous hemianopia (compress ipsilateral PCA), ipsilateral paresis (compres contralateral crus cerebri), duret hemorrhages - paramedian artery rupture
where is optic nerve cut to get right anopia
at optic nerve
where is optic nerve cut to get bitemporal hemianopia
optic chiasm
where is optic nerve cut to get left homonymous hemianopia
optic tract
where is optic nerve cut to get left upper quadrantic anopsia
meyer's loop (temporal)
where is optic nerve cut to get left lower quadrantic anopia
parietal lobe radiation
where is optic nerve cut to get left hemianopia with macular sparing
visual cortex
where is the lesion to get internuclear opthalmoplegia
medial longitudinal fasciculus
what are the consequences of internuclear opthalmoplegia?
nystagmus in abducting eye, medial rectus palsy on lateral gase
what disease has internuclear opthalmoplegia?
multiple sclerosis
name the pathway of the MLF
nucleus of cn VI fires, contract left lateral rectus and stimulates contralateral cn III nucleus via MLF to contract right medial rectus
lesion in spinal chord: bilateral spastic paresis, bilateral loss of pain/temperature, bilateral flaccid paralysis of innervated muscles
ventral spinal artery occlusion
two arteries that infarct can cause cn III problems
superior cerebellar artery, posterior cerebral artery
lesion: bilateral loss of proprioception and vibration, bilateral spastic paresis, bilateral arm and leg dystaxia
subacute combined degeneration
lesion: bilateral loss of pain and temperature plus flaccid paralysis of innervated muscles
syringomyelia
lesion: paresthesias, pain, sensory loss, hyporeflexia, muscle weakness and particular segment
intervertebral disk herniation
lesion: severe unilateral pain, unilateral muscle atrophy, no quadriceps and ankle jerk, gradual
cauda equina syndrome
lesion: bilateral non-severe pain, incontinence, impaired sexual function, sudden onset
conus medullaris syndrome
lesion: contralateral spastic hemiparesis, contralateral loss of tactile/vibration sense, ipsilateral deviation of tongue
anterior spinal artery
lesion: loss of gag reflex, nystagmus, contralateral loss of pain and temperature, vertigo, ipsilateral cerebellar signs, dysphagia, hoarseness
PICA
lesion: contralateral spastic hemiparesis, contralateral loss of tactile sensation from trunk/ipsilateral lateral rectus paralysis
paramedian branches of basilar artery (pons)
lesion: ipsilateral facial nerve paralysis, ipsilateral loss of anterior 2/3 tongue, loss of lacrimation, loss of corneal reflex, nysagmus, vomiting, contralateral pain and temperature loss
AICA (lateral pons)
where is lesion: pinealoma or germinoma: paralysis of upward and downward gaze, noncommunicating hydrocephalus, absence of convergence
parinaud's (dorsal midbrain)
where is lesion: tonic abduction and depression of eye, ptosis, dilated pupil, cerebellar dystaxia, contralateral loss of vibration/proprioception
paramedian midbrain
where is lesion: tonic abduction and depression of eye, contralateral spastic hemiparesis, contralateral weakness of lower face, deviation of tongue towards lesion, deviation of uvula away from lesion
medial midbrain lesion (eye + loss of corticobulbar tracts)
tinittus, vertigo, nystagmus, unilateral deafness,
acoustic neuroma
where is lesion: ipsilateral loss of gag reflex, paralysis of soft palate ipsilatera, ipsilateral loss of taste of tongue, parlaysis of SCM and trapezius
jugular foramen syndrome
lesion: can blink but can't move, pseudocoma
"locked in syndrome" in pons
lesin: transient weakness and claudication of left arm in excercise
subclavian steal snydrome
mechanism of subclavian steal syndrome
thrombosis of left subclavian before vertebral artery, unoxygenated blood shunted down to vertebral through circle of willis
what nerves at cerebellopontine angle?
cn VII, VIII
define cerebellopontine angle?
where medulla, pons, and cerebellum meet
afferent and eferent for corneal reflex?
afferent: v1, efferent: VII
afferent and efferent for jaw reflex
afferent: v3, efferent: v3
afferent and efferent for lacrimal reflex
afferent: v1, efferent VII
oculocardiac reflex afferent and efferent
afferent: VI, efferent X
gag reflex: afferent and efferent
afferent: IX, efferent, X
anterograde degeneration of axons and myelin sheaths, secondary proliferatoin of schwann cells
wallerian degeneration
what hemisphere is dominant?
left hemisphere
hemisphere responsible for nonverbal ideation, recognition of faces, spatial perception
right hemisphere
hemisphere responsible for language, speech, calculation
left hemisphere
innermost cell layer of cerebellar cortex
granular layer
middle layer of cerebellar cortex
purkinje layer
outmost layer of cerebellar cortex
molecular layer
retrograde degeneration of neurons and loss of nissl substance after axotomy
chromatolysis
what is the only output of the cerebellar cortex
purkinje fibers
are purkinje fibers inhibitory or excitatory?
excitatory
what excites purkinje fibers (2)
parallel and climbing fibers
what inibits purkinje cell fibers (2)
basket and stellate cells
what are the axons of granule cells called
parallel fibers
what are the glomeruli of the granular layer of the cerebellar cotex?
where mossy fibers synpase on granular and golgi II cells
where do paralell fibers synpase?
outermost, molecular layer
where do climbing fibers originate?
inferior olive in medulla
where do climbing fibers synapse?
purkinje cells
what purpose do climbing fibers play?
cerebellar motor learning
where are mossy fibers from
many centers in brain stem/spinal cord
where do mossy fibers terminate on
granule cell dendrites
what will happen in weber test in conduction deafness?
will hear vibration more loudly in affected era
what will happen in weber test in nerve deafness
louder in normal ear
what will happen in rinne test in conduction deafness
BC>AC in affected ear
what will happen in rinne test in nerve deafness
AC>BC in both ears
if lesion of superior oblique muscle, where will you turn your head?
will be tonically extorted so will turn head in opposite direction to stabilize vision
where is the slow phase of nystagmus in regards to rotation
opposite rotation
where is the fast phase of nystagmus in regards to rotation
towards rotation
describe the fast/slow phases of nystagmus post-rotation
slow phase nystagmus towards rotation, fast phase away from rotation
in cold water nystagmus test, where will the nystagmus be twoards
opposite side
in warm water nystagmus, where will the nystagmus be towards
same side
low-intensity light, involved in night vision
rods
lower acuity, not in fovea
rods
is there color vision in rods?
no
is there color vision in cones?
yes
higher acuity, in fovea
cones
high-intensity light, day vision
cones
where are vasomotor center, respiratory center, swalloing/coughing/vomiting centers
medulla
where is pneumotaxic center
pons
what is function of pneumotaxic center?
inhibits inspiration indirectly of vagus
where is micturition center
midbrain