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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The nervous system consists of
anatomical divisions: CNS and PNS

functional divisions: autonomic NS and Somatic NS
The CNS structures include
Brain: cerebellum, cerebrum, brainstem, subcortical structures
Spinal Cord
** all located within skull or spinal column
The CNS is protected by the:
Skull (cranium)
Spinal Column
Meninges
CSF
The skull is composed of:
8 plates
cranial vault
foramen magnum-large opening for brainstem
The spinal column has ___ vertebrae. Name them...
33 vertebrae
cervical-7
thoracic-12
lumbar-5
sacral-5
coccygeal-1fused
The meninges have 3 parts which are:
dura-outer most
arachnoid-middle
pia-inner most closest to brain
The CSF serves to do 4 things which are:
1. protection
2. transport nutrition
3. circulate in subarach space and ventricles
4. formed in choroid plexus
*Perception and Discrimination
*Regulation of respiration & heartbeat
*emotional expression
*behavior
*Mental processes
*Language
these are all characteristics of________.
The CNS
The Peripheral Nervous system consists of:
1. 12 pairs of cranial nerves
2. 31 pairs of spinal nerves
3. sensory receptors
All located mostly outside of bone
The PNS is responsible for:
Somatic NS- responsible for consious sensory perception and volitional motor activity
Autonomic NS- involuntary self regulation "fight or flight"
The Limbic Lobe is located______ and consists of ______ and ______.
can only be seen in the medial view of the brain
consists of the cingulate gyrus & parahippocampal gyrus
Area 4 of the frontal lobe is responsible for:
motor control of articulators

(discrete movements)
Area 6 of the frontal lobe is responsible for:
gross motor movements, postures
Area 8 of the frontal lobe is responsible for:
conjugate eye movements
Areas 44 and 45 of the frontal lobe are responsible for:
Left: motor programs for speech

Right: expressive/production of prosody & emotional intonation of speech
The funtion of the Frontal Lobe is:
higher level of funtioning of intellect and psyche
language
cognition skills
reasoning
executive funtioning and planning
Area 3,1,2 in the Parietal lobe are responsible for:
RECOGNITION of touch , pressure, temperature, muscle movements
Area 5,7 in the Parietal lobe are responsible for:
UNDERSTANDING touch, pressur
Area 39 in the Parietal lobe are responsible for:
LEFT: understanding semantics, recog. written words/symbols
RIGHT: receptive, prosody and intonation
Area 40 in the Parietal lobe are responsible for:
LEFT: blending semantic and phonetic info
In areas 5, 7 in the parietal lobe, the sterognostic sense allows for:
us to integrate info about how things feel into a recognition of how they look
Area 41, 42 in the Temporal lobe are responsible for:
recognition of auditory stimuli
Area 22 in the Temporal lobe is responsible for:
Comprehension of words

Wernicke's area-interpret and assign significance to what you hear
Area 17 in the Occipital lobe is responsible for:
RECOGNITION of visual stimuli
Area 18,19 in the Occipital lobe is responsible for:
COMPREHENSION of visual stimuli
The area of cortex that is 'buried' or 'covered up' by parts of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes
the Insula
The circle of cortical areas surrounding the Sylvian fissure in the frontal, temporal, parietal lobes in left hemisphere important for language function is the
Perisylvian Region
(near Brocas and Wernickes areas)
can also affect written lang and reading
The Limbic system is important for:
*emtional response
*Drive-related bx (sexual, hunger)
*memory
(person can produce swear words)
Within the Limbic system is the Amygdala which funtions to:
control aggressive behavior and facilitate understanding and responsiveness to social signals (pragmatics/social appropriatness)
Within the Limbic system is the Hypothalamus which functions to:
regulate bodily processes, the pituitary gland, and mediate pleasure
Within the Limbic System is the Hippocampus which funtions to:
facilitate memory for new info.
Damage=anterograde amnesia (an inability to remember new info)
*Seahorse shaped
Gray matter is comprised of:
nerve cell bodies
6 diff layers
pyramidal & nonpyramidal cells
Also known as the CORTEX
White matter is comprised of:
axons and nerve fibers
Also known as the SUBCORTEX
The Primary Cortex within the Cerebral Cortex is responsible for:
primary motor projections (voluntary movement) and primary sensory reception
The Association Cortex within the Cerebral Cortex is responsible for:
*association: combining, refining and interpreting sensory info transmitted to primary cortical areas
*awareness & perception
*Gnosis-complex activity of knowing
Connection fibers consist of 3 diff types:
1. association
2. commissural
3. projection
Association fibers/Fasiculi are:
local carriers in CNS that connect cortical areas within a hemisphere (local)
fasiculi- farther apart, different lobes put in the same hemisphere
The Arcuate Fasiculus within the Association fibers is important for:
speech; it connects Brocas and Wernickes areas
Commissural fibers/regional carriers are connections:
between the hemispheres
*Corpus callosum connects 2 hemis
*Consists of anterior and posterior commissures
Projection fibers - efferent fibers
Efferent-motor nerves that carry command and control signals fom brain to muscles

*long distance carriers
Projection fibers - Afferent fibers
Afferent-sensory nerves that carry sensory info from receptors in the periphery to the brain
The left brain hemisphere specializes in:
*language
*rational & analytic
*processes sequential, time-related material
The right brain hemisphere specializes in:
*Prosodic and emotional tones of lang
*intuitive & holistic
*specializes in gestalt like functions
*music
The diencephalon consists of ___, ___ and ____.
thalamus
hypothalamus
basal ganglia
The Thalamus is the:
egg like mass
*important for consiousness, alterness, attention
*major relay center and way station between motor and sensory cortexes (Sensory gateway)
What is meant by the "Sensory Gateway" in the Thalamus?
all senses except smell stop here before going to the cortex
What happens when theres is pulvinar in the Thalamus?
large swelling on the posterior end of thalamus (related to speech function)
Where is the Hypothalamus located and what are its functions?
located below Thalamus (very small)
*regulates boedy temp, thirst, appetite
:*exerts neural control over pituitary gland's secretion of hormones
*emotional behavior-rage aggression, escape behavior
Where is the basal ganglia located and what are its 3 parts?
located deep in gray matter
*caudate nucleus
*putamen
*globus pallidus
What are the functions of the Basal Ganglia?
What happens if damage occurs?
Recieves input and send info to thalamus-cortex
*regulation of major muscle groups in trunk and limbs
*Regulates Posture and tone
Damage: dykinesia (problems with mvmt and sensation)
What is the function of the Pons?
it directs outgoing motor signals from the brian to the body.
Contains tracts of nerves and cranial nerve pathways
The medulla oblongata is:
areas where cross-over (decussations) occurs
The Medulla Oblongata contains:
vital centers for autonomic processes, including respiration, control of blood flow, heartbeat blood pressure
Where is the Reticular Formation and what is its function?
located within core of brainstem
*controls arousal and consciousness, transmission of info in pain pathways
Whst is the result of damage to the Reticular Formation?
coma if there is bilateral damage.