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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
- Lateral rectus innervation, job and how to test
Abducens, abducts – to test, look laterally
- Medial rectus inervation, job and how to test
occulomotor, adducts – to test, look medially
Superior rectus innervation, job and how to test
occulomotor elevates, adducts, and intorsion (up and in) – to test, look out and then up
- Inferior rectus innervation, job and how to test
Occulomotor, depresses, adducts, and extorsion (down and in) – to test, look out and then down
- Superior oblique innervation, job and how to test
trochlear, intorsion, depression, abduction (down and out) – to test, look in and then down
- Inferior oblique innervation, job and how to test
occulomotor, extorsion, elevation, abduction (up and out) – to test, look in and then up
-Levator palpebrae superioris
Occulomotor, elevates upper eyelid (lesion of CN3-> complete ptosis
Intraocular muscles
– ciliary, sphincter pupilae (para), dilator papillae (sympt – lesion in symp -> Horner’s)
Brainstem nuclei
- Occulomotor nucleus at level of SUPERIOR colliculus at V of PAG, contains Edinger-Westphal nucleus (parasymps)
- Trochlear nucleus at level of INFERIOR colliculus at V of PAG, only CN to exit dorsal side of brainstem
- Abducens nucleus under FACIAL colliculus
5) Gaze stabilization
– fixation (nucleus prepositus hypoglossi and interstitial nucleus of cajal), VOR (vestibular nuclei, MLF), OKN (retina, pretectum and then sup colic and motor nuclei
Gaze Fixation
VOR cancellation (overriding VOR via higher centers to keep gaze focused when head is moving), smooth pursuit, saccades, vergence (conjugate) movement
Ocular reflexes
pupillary reflex (afferent limb = CN2, efferent limb = CN3), blinking reflex (afferent limb = CN5, efferent limb = CN7)
Nystagmus results from
damage to vestibular system
strabismus
misalignment of the 2 eyes due to improper control of gaze by eye muscles),
ptosis
(eyelid drooping, can be caused by Occulomotor damage or Horner’s syndrome
caloric test
tests asymmetrical function in peripheral vestibular system – COWS)
Oculomotor movements
– stabilizes images on retina (minisaccades so don’t undergo adaptation)
Eye movement coordination
PPRF – horizontal gaze center
- Superior colliculus is organized in layers – superficial layer = retinotopic map of visual space, intermediate layer = auditory and somatosensory mapping to a visual point in space, deep layer = map of vectors that allow head/neck movements to a specific point in space
- Damage to superior colliculus ->won’t be able to move eyes to a particular point in space
Horizontal gaze center
PPRF
horizontal/vertical gaze center
nucleus prepositus hypoglossi
- Weber syndrome
ipsilateral eye, contralateral face and body – involves occulomotor, corticospinal/bulbar tracts in cerebral peduncle, ipsilateral oculomotor palsy with muscle atropy, ptosis, mydriasis, contralateral hemiparesis, contralatera paralysis of lower face and protruded tongue to contralateral side
- Claude syndrome
ipsilateral eye contralateral face and body – involves oculomotor nerve, red nucleus, and cerebellothalamic fibers, ipsilateral oculomotor palsy with muscle atropy, ptosis, mydriasis, contralateral tremor and ataxia, contralateral loss of position, discriminative, and vibratory sense
- Benedikt syndrome
combination of Weber and Claude
Horner’s syndrome
– lack of sympathetic to head ->ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis, enthapholos, vasodilation