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37 Cards in this Set

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What is stress developed by
HANS SELYE
Injected rats had:
ulcers, kidney damage, impaired immune response, increased adrenal response
Stress is shared by most animals in kingdom
immediate danger. mobilize yourself to fight off attack.
Get away from it as fast as you can. Fight or flight response.
Acute stress characteristics
Energy mobilization (glycogen stores), cardiovascular tone increased, digestion/growth/repro halted, immune suppression, improved cognition (sharpened, quick decisions)
Acute Stress
Prepare you for fight or flight response.
Characteristics of Acute Stress
Energy mobilization
Cardiovascular tone increase
Digestion, growth, reproduction, mmune halted.
Improves cogntion to allow for sharpened responses
Chronic fatigue
myopathy, fatigue
Hypertension
Ulcertation (digestion)
DWARFISM

Amenorrhea, impotency
Disease risk increases
Neuronal Death
Pathway
cortex stimulates amygdala


Lous Coeruleus via NE stimulate Amygdala

Amygdala and CRH

Epinephrine and glucocorticoids
Steroids and cortisol are secreted by
ADRENAL glands
Hippocampus has what type of population
glucocorticoid receptor population
GC receptors and neuronal loss are highest where with chronic stress
HIPPOCAMPUS

Cognitive loss= neuronal loss
Injection of glucocorticoids (GCs, cortisol or corticosterone)
Increase neuronal loss
Memory loss increases with age.
As rat ages, GCs increase, higher the hormone levels are, greater neuronal loss
Adrenalectomy
remove GCs, prevent neuronal loss
What does a smaller hippocampus predict?
VULNERABILITY
Post traumatic stress disorder
GCs and brain glucose
Neurons are vulnerable to damage
limit brain glucose transport

(Glucose is shunted to muscle tissue)
When brain experiences seizures, hypoxia or ischemia..
Neuronal loss only if there adrenal glands

It is not the loss of oxygen, it is the response the brain has to it
Seizures and limiting glucose cause
increase in excitatory amino acids
Glutamate

Stimulate NMDA receptors
Increase intracellular calcium
Increase protease activity-
Destroy neurons
The neuron can deal with events ONLY If
sufficient glucose to support energetically costly defense mecahnisms
Glia and EAAs
Glia takes up EAAs (glucose dependent) and limits EAA activity

Glutamate prevents this mechanism and thereby increases neuronal damage
Hippocampal shrinkage induces what
MEMORY PROBLEMS

(bc of chronic stress)
Dopamine depletion
difficult to experience pleasure

chronic stress
Norepinephrine depletion
diminishes attention
Sprouting new neuronal connection in amygdala and response to stress
Because hippo is smaller
Amygdala's emotional response gets larger
Sensitive to even more stress
Example of stress-relief drugs
Alcohol
Barbituates: phenobarbital
Benzodiazepines: Librium, Xanax and Valium
How do the stress relief drugs work?
All act via the GABA receptor, by facilitating opening of the channel and allowing Cl' to enter when GABA binds

Hyperpolarize
Inhibits amygdala where emotional events are process

Amygdala is not as robust
Motivation of ingestion of comfort foods
Glucocorticoids act systemically to increase ab fat deposits.
GABAa receptor
chloride going into the neuron
normal levels of inhibition
Benzodiazapine sites on GABA
binds to site
Allows GABA to elicit more Chloride action into the neurons

Alcohol and barbituate bind
Facilitate action of GABA
inhibit more
Caffeine and GABAa
decreasing Cl flow into cells
GABAa receptor and caffeine and decrease neuron inhibition mechanism
Has its own site on GABA receptor
Decreases amt of chloride that can go into neuron
DBI
DIAZEPAM binding inhibitor
DBI is an endogenous agent
bind to GABAa receptor complex on same site as the benzodiazepines, instead of increasing Cl

blocks GABA activation of the Cl' channel and increase anxiety
What has the opposite effect of tranquilizers?
DiazePAM Binding Inhibitor
Steriods released during stress affect what receptor
GABAa receptor
What glia synthesized steriod has its own binding site on the GABAa receptor
ALLOPREGNANOLONE
Like BENZODIAZEPINES, steroid hormone increases ability of GABA to bind to receptor
Increase influx of chloride and inhibit