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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what do all CNS/PNS supportive cells, except microglia/macrophages, arise from?
what does gray matter contain?
what does white matter contain?
myelinated axons
cortical dysplasia
abnormality assoc w/seizures; total disarray of cortical neurons, including loss of lamination and polarization
Nissl mat'l
dark blue stuff in cytoplasm
Nissl bodies
Nissl mat'l within MOTOR NEURONS; distributed as course clumps
Nissl substance
*Nissl mat'l within SENSORY NEURON cytoplasm ("S"ubstance="S"ensory)
*even distribution
(+) presynaptic impulses converging on a second or teriary order neuron from other primary neuronal sources, promoting discharge of an impulse or firing
mneum: "facitation" facilitates firing
(-) presynaptic impulses converging on second/tertiary neuron from other primary neuronal soruces, preventing discharge or firing
final common pathway
convergence of several presynaptic impulses from multiple neuronal sources upon a second/tertiary neuron, determining whether or not neuron will fire
sum total of pre-synaptic (+) and (-) pulses converging on second/tertiary neuron;
if sum total is positive, the neuron will fire, and vice versa
is acute neuronal injury reversible?
(b/c acute neuronal injury is a representation of coagulation necrosis, which is not reversible [necrosis is not reversible!!])
what is first sign of irreversible damage to neuron?
dead red neuron
is coagulation necrosis reversible?
is coagulation necrosis immediately visible with light microscopy?
no, not til >=12 hrs post insult
char of dead red neuron
1."dead"-->pyknosis (entire cell shrinks)
2."dead"-->nucleus shrinks and loses cell detail
3."red"-->cyto loses cell detail and assmes diffuse, brick-red discoloration
what happens to dead red neuron
neuronophagic (dead red neuron engulfed and ingested by macrophages)
what is a glial nodule
AKA neuronophagia (neuronal death)
(remember: glia are CNS phagocytes)
AKA mummification AKA mineralization;
results from insult;
dead neurons not removed by macrophages (neuronophagia), but become coated with a mix of calcium, protein and iron(thus, ferruginized/mummified
what are border zones or watershed areas
terminal or distal supply areas b/w major cerebral arteries
name the border zone areas
1.Parasagittal region of cerebral cortex (sagittal=divides hemispheres of brain)
-btw ACA and MCA
-one inch lateral to sagittal fissure

2.hippocampal region of temporal lobe:
-b/w MCA & PCA (uncus)

3.apex of cerebellar convexity
-b/w sup and inf cerebellar arteries
selective vulnerability (pathoclisis)
proclivity of neurons at certain sites in CNS to be more readily injured that in orher areas; inherent subsceptiblity to injury, bvased on intrinsic phys, chem, or molecular differences
is axonal rxn reversible?
"fish eye" cell
axonal rxn
axonal rxn
retrograde response of neuron's cell body d/t injury of that neuron's axon
(axon-->retrograde to cell body)
mneum: "axonal", thus injured axon
central chromatolysis
loss of Nissl in central area of cystoplasm
is transsynaptic degeneration reversible?
transsynaptic degeneration
reaction of 2nd order neuron to injury of axon from 1st order neuron,
first-1st order neuron injury, then-2nd order neuron swells
hypertrophy of the olive occurs in what situation
transsynaptic degeneration (if enough pre-synaptic descending axons injured, then entire inf olive swells)
intracytoplasmic neuronal poigment which increases with age;
represents benign "wear and tear"
nl intracytoplasmic neuronal pigment found in specific nuclei:
1. Substantia nigra of midbrain
2. Locus coeruleus of upper pons
3. DMX (Dorsal Motor of CN X) of medulla
melanin content of leptomeninges parallels what?
the melanin content of skin
Cowdry Type A intranuclear inclusions
-suggests viral dz
-large, reddish-purple (magenta) intranuclear inclusions which displace the chromatin to the nuclear edge
astrocytes are of what origin
GFAP (Glial Fibrillary Acid Protein) stains for
fxn of astrocytes
glue together the nervous system (Jeff: think of an alien with lots of arms that supports everything);
-astrocytes interdigitate to form delicate, finely fibrillar Neuropil, in which neurons are embedded, much like raisins in a loaf of bread (astrocytes embedded in Neuropil, as raisins embedded in loaf of bread) (raisins=astrocyte, bread=neuropil)
neurons are embedded in neuropil, much like raisins in a loaf of bread (raisins=astrocyte, bread=neuropil)
protoplasmic astrocyte
*gray matter
*plump cell body and cytoplasmic processes

(makes sense that it's plump bc gray matter contains cell bodies, which are big and thus need plump astrocytes to support them)
fibrillary astrocytes
*white matter
*spindled cell bodies and thin cytoplasmic processes

(makes sense that they are thin/spindled b/c white matter has axons, which are thin, so the astrocytes that support them are also thin)
non-spec response of astrocytes to injury-->swelling and visibility of the cytoplasm (b/c cyto becomes pinkish-red)
protoplasmic astrocyte reacts in what manner to injury?
reacts acutely to injury, as with infarction
mneum: PROtoplasmic atrocytes are PROs at reacting fast (acutely)
fibrillary astrocyte reacts in what manner?
reacts in a chronic mode, as in MS
Bergmann's glia AKA Bergmann's gliosis
injury to cerebellum
-->astrocytes activated within the plane of hte Purkinje cells
-->Purk cells are lost and reactive glia line up like soldiers at attention(=Bergmann's glia/gliosis)
Rosenthal fibers
H&E: thick, red linear structures resembling plump, red sausages (think of Jewish guy "Rosenthal" with a big red "sausage");
Ultrastructural Level:
*swollen astrocyte processes filled with glial filaments

assoc w/:
-pilocytic astrocytomas ("pilus too big like sausages")
-Alexander's Dz ("Alexander Rosenthal")
Corpora amylacea
AKA Amyloid bodies within astrocytes (corpora AMYlacea=AMYloid bodies)

-round, gray-blue structures with concentric rings within astrocytes, which increase in proportion to age
-intracellular, reflecting a deposition of "polyglycosan" (glycogen-like mat'l) within the astrocyte
LaFora's Dz
systemic storage Dz;
depositions of "LaFora Bodies" [polyglycosan (glycogen-like mat'l)] in various organs, incl CNS
microglial cells arise from what?
what are microglial cells?
CNS phagocytes
appearance of oligodendroglia
glia (CNS phagocytes) with few cytoplasmic branches ("oligo"=few)
fxn of oligodendroglia
form myelin sheath
protoplasmic astrocytes react in what manner to injury?
in acute manner, as in ____

mneum: PROtoplasmic astrocytes are PROs at reacting fast (acutely)
what does H&E stain of oligodendroglia cell look like ?
1.small, round, dark "cookie cutter" nucleus, resembling a lymphocyte
2."fried egg"--nucleus surrounded by pale area
3.benign satelitosis: 3-5 oligodendroglial cells in gray matter that surrounds cell body of neuron
multiple system atrophy
glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCI) in the form of minute silver-positive intracytoplasmic structures
Shy-Drager Syndrome
AKA (Familial Dysautonomia)
spindle-shaped nucleus
microglial cell
cigar-shaped nucleus
microglial cell
how does CNS heal?
by cavitation (NOT by scarring)
"rod cells"
spindled microglial nucleis that have become prominent d/t injury
glial nodules
the constellation of (neuronal ingestion formed by) macrophages that congregated around injured tissue, esp neurons
AKA basal body of the cilia;
the only remnant of the cilia that was present on the ependymal cell during the fetal period
granular ependymitis
reactive astrocytes (visible to naked eye as minute granular structures) that have replaced the scattered foci of epedendymal cells that were eroded by infxn
hydrocephalic edema
infiltration of CSF into adjacent parencyhma d/t opening of tight edendymal cell junctions d/t hydrocephalus
AKA selective vulnerability;
inherent susceptibility of certain neurons to injury, based on intrinsic physiological, chemical, or molecular diff's
what are the neuronal pigments
The following 3 are intra-cytoplasmic:
*incr with age
2. neuromelanin, found in:
*SN of midbrain
*locus coeruleus of upper pons
*lost in Parkinson's (thus, SN is pale in Parkinsons)
*melanin content of leptomeninges parallels content of skin
what are neuronal inclusions
Cowdry Type A=intraNUCLEAR
-viral dz
infarction activates which type of cell?
protoplasmic astrocyte (react acutely to injury)
multiple sclerosis activates which time of cell
fibrillary astrocytes (react in a chronic mode to injury)