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99 Cards in this Set

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the EEG measures electric activity wrt:
other electrodes,

not the ground
it's impossible for the EEG electrodes to record the activity of ONE neuron, due to layers of the skull; thus EEG records
activity of thousands of neurons

(populations)
EEG manifests in
brain waves
the signal of a single neuron is
10's of mV's
normally, the sum of the waves produced by neurons is
irregular
synchronous, regular waves correspond to:
BOTH nonREM

and seizure
seizures are a result of
abnormal rhythms

abnormal does not mean irregular
generalized seizure =
synchronous activity of *entire* cortex
generalized seizure =>
exhaustion
partial seizure =
synchronous activity of a *region* of cortex
symptoms of partial seizure may manifest in:
motor, visual, memory problems, depending on specific region affected
seizures are recognized by:

(technology)
large EEG's
epilepsy =
the condition of repeated seizures
epilepsy (the having of seizures) is caused by:

(4)
1. trauma

2. disease

3. tumor

4. genetics
EEG rhythms:

(4)
1. Beta

2. alpha

3. theta

4. delta
Beta rhythm =
>14 Hz,

awake/REM
alpha frequency =
8-13 Hz
theta frequency =
4-7 Hz

Stages 1 and 2
delta frequency =
<4 Hz,

Stages 3 and 4
***high-frequency, low-amplitude*** rhythm corresponds to:

(2)
1. awake

2. REM
what are the frequency and amplitude characteristics of non-dreaming sleep or coma?
high amplitude,

low-frequency
3 functional states of the brain:
1. awake

2. non-REM sleep

3. REM sleep
how much of our lives do we spend sleeping?
1/3
reasons why we sleep:

(4)
1. replenish brian glycogen levels

2. conserve energy

3. nighttime lowers visibility - avoid bad conditions

4. consolidate memory
sleep is an ______ process
active
what are the most critical kinds of neurons in sleep?
those of the *diffuse modulatory systems*
flow of sleep is in order, and cycles through; stage 4 is not reached after about:
2 cycles
awake ~
Beta
sleepy ~
alpha
Stage 1 ~
theta
Stage 2 ~
theta
Stage 3 ~
delta
Stage 4 ~
delta
REM ~
**Beta**
Stage 1 characteristics:

(2)
1. lightest sleep stage

2. transitional - lasts a few minutes
Stage 2 characteristics:

(4)
1. deeper - lasts 5-15 minutes

2. sleep spindles in waves

3. K-complexes in waves

4. eye movements cease
Stage 3 characteristics:

(2)
1. EEG waves become larger, slower

2. eye and body movements are absent
Stage 4 has the largest:
*amplitude* of EEG

(remember that REM has high-freq, low amplitude, like awake)
REM characteristics:

(3)
1. *fast* EEG (>14 Hz)

2. body is paralyzed

3. dreams occur
REM waves are the same as when
you're awake
while stage 4 is deep sleep, REM is
dream sleep
the body is _______ during REM sleep
still
the sleep cycle =
75% non-REM and 25% REM
the cycle to go from Stage 1 through REM lasts about
90 minutes
as the night progresses, there is less and less _______ and more and more ______
non-REM;

REM
during the last one-third of the night, REM cycles may last
30-50 minutes
each REM cycle is followed by AT LEAST ________________
30 minutes of non-REM,

before another REM phase begins
in non-REM, the _____ is dominant
ParaNS
in REM,
SNS is dominant
non-REM ~
idling brain in moving body
whereas REM =
active brain in paralyzed body
in non-REM, sensory input
does NOT reach the cortex
while in REM, EEG looks like
the waking brain
in REM, energy use is ______
***high***
in BOTH non-REM and REM, body temperature is
low
in non-REM, HR and respiration are
low;

in REM, they are **high**
erection occurs during
REM sleep
during REM *only*, what system is used to dec. sensory input to cortex and thus dec. response to the world?
**GABA input to cuneatus and gracilis**
during REM, both the ____ (pons) and the ____ (medulla) activate __________________________ which ______________________________ via ________
SLD; SOM;

inhibitory interneurons;

inhibit motor neurons;

glycine
during REM, the limbic system is ___________, leading to _______________
activated;

irrational dreams
the Reticular Activating System (RAS) stimulates the thalamus, =>
waking up
during REM, the thought/control portions of the brain are
inactivated
2 stable states of the thalamus:
1. tonically active

2. oscillatory/bursting
tonically active state of the thalamus =>
1. awake

2. allows sensory info to pass to cortex
oscillatory/bursting state of the thalamus =>
1. sleep

2. prevents sensory information from coming into cortex
which nucleus hyperpolarizes the thalamus and causes sleep?
the Thalamic Reticular Nucleus (TRN)
the RAS ________ the thalamus, converting it to tonic activity and leading to __________
depolarizes;

wakefulness
when TRN is active:
Ca2+ channels are activated, bursting behavior is produced => rhythmic activity of thalamus occurs => rhythmic activity of the cortex => sleep
when RAS is active, thalamus regains tonic activity, =>
wake up
lesions of BS nuclei (all RAS) =>
sleep,

b/c they can't depolarize the thalamus and wake you up
conversely, stimulation of the RAS nuclei =>
hyper alertness

they keep the thalamus depolarized and responsive to the outside world
the tuberomammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus corresponds to:
histamine
the SCN inhibits
PVN
the PVN activates
IML cell column => melatonin
the lateral hypothalamus releases
***orexin***
orexin promotes
**waking**
orexin activates
the RAS nuclei
RAS nuclei =

(4)
1. cholinergic

2. tuberomammillary nucleus (HIST)

3. loecus coruleus

4. Raphe
TMN releases
histamine
VLPO promotes
***sleep***
the lateral hypothalamus activates:

(2)
1. TMN

2. other RAS
the VLPO inhibits:

(2)
1. TMN

2. other RAS
Histamine/NOR/SER are ALL active when one is
awake
Histamine/NOR/SER are INactive during _________________
ALL stages of **sleep**

(nonREM and REM)
ACH is active during:

(2)
1. awake

2. REM
ACH is NOT active during
non-REM sleep
ACH and Histamine/NOR/SER are ALL active during
awake
ACH and Histamine/NOR/SER are ALL inactivated during
non-REM sleep
the adenosine theory of sleep:
decreasing glycogen during wake => increasing adenosine / dec. RAS activity => hyperpolarized thalamus => sleep
adenosine promotes
sleep
glycogen depletion =>
adenosine release
adenosine/glycogen/RAS during sleep:

(3)
1. adenosine levels fall

2. glycogen levels rise

3. RAS activity goes up
people deprived of REM sleep will have
longer periods of REM once they're able
REM deprivation and learning:
deprived of REM => impaired ability to learn
REM sleep increases in duration following
intense learning experience
insomnia is caused by:

(4)
1. stress

2. depression

3. age

4. caffeine
sleep apnea =>
fatigue, possible death
restless leg syndrome = irritating sensation in legs (ants), must move them to relieve the sensation; =>
fatigue
narcolepsy =
sudden onset of **REM sleep** at any point during the day