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135 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
generally inhibits
generally excites
generally inhibitory
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
majority of post-synaptic INHIBITION in brain
majority of post-synaptic INHIBITION in the spinal cord
glutamate and aspartate
Endorphins and enkephalins
generally inhibits
Substance P
generally excites
Which neurotransmitters are monoamines?
norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, histamine
Which neurotransmitters are amino acids?
GABA, glycine, glutamate, and aspartate
Which neurotransmitters are neuropeptides?
endorphins, enkephalins, and substance P
What is the CNS?
brain and spinal cord
What is the PNS?
cranial and spinal nerves
What are the divisions of the PNS?
somatic and autonomic nervous systems
What are the two divisions of the ANS?
sympathetic and parasympathetic
olfactory nerve
sensory: smell
optic nerve
sensory: vision
oculomotor nerve
motor: muscles of eye, eyelid, iris
trochlear nerve
motor: extraocular muscles
trigeminal nerve
both: sensory for mouth, nose, surface/eye, dura mater
motor for chewing
abducens nerve
motor: lateral muscles of eye
facial nerve
both: motor for facial expression and lacrimal + salivary glands
sensory for anterior taste buds
acoustic nerve
sensory: equilibrium and hearing
glossopharyngeal nerve
both: motor for pharynx and salivary glands
sensory for pharynx, post. taste buds, and pressure receptors of carotid arteries
vagus nerve
both: motor for pharynx and (parasymp) smooth muscles of abdo. organs.
sensory for pharynx and viscera
spinal accessory nerve
motor: for sternocleidomastoid, trapezius, soft palate, pharynx, and larynx muscles
hypoglossal nerve
motor: tongue
What is the dura mater?
the two outermost meninges of the brain. Dura mater is seperated from the arachnoid mater by subdural space.
What are the meninges and their dividing spaces?
skull-epidural space-
dura mater (2 layers)-subdural space-arachnoid mater-subarachnoid space-pia mater
Where is CSF in the meninges?
in the subarachnoid space
What are the three types of neurons?
sensory (afferent), associational, and motor (efferent)
What composes the forebrain?
the cerebral hemispheres and the diencephalon
What is the hindbrain?
the brain stem (pons, medulla oglongata, and cerebellum)
What is the midbrain?
corpora quadragemina, cerebral peduncles, and aqueduct of sylvius
What are the cerebral peduncles?
the red nucleus (receives ascending info from cerebellum), the substantia nigra (makes dopamine--dysfunction = Parkinson's or drugs), and the basis pedunculi (efferent spinal tracts)
What are functions of the frontal lobe?
concentration, short term memory, thought, inhibit limbic system, movement of eyes, lower limbs, lower face/throat, movement of torso, arm, middle hand.
*Broca's area*
What is Broca's area?
An area on the frontal brain lobe (usually on left) associated with motor aspects of speech.
What is the extra-pyramidal system?
efferent pathways outside the pyramids of the medulla oblongata.
What are functions of the parietal lobe?
major somatic input, sensory/motor function
What are the functions of the occipital lobe?
primary visual and auditory cortexes
What are functions of the occipital lobe?
primary visual and auditory cortexes
Werniche's area: reception & interpretation of speech
What are functions of the insula?
houses corpus callosum--connects two cerebral hemispheres
What are some functions of the limbic system?
primitive behaviors/emotions; eating and bio rhythm behaviors; smell
What is the thalamus?
major integrating center for afferent impulses going to the cerebral cortex
*exception: smell*
What are some functions of the hypothalamus?
maintains constant internal temp;
control center of ANS
implements behavioral patterns
regulates emotional expression
What are some functions of the midbrain?
visual and auditory movements (eyes follow moving object; turn head to hear)
synthesis of dopamine
What are some functions of the cerebellum?
maintains ballance and posture
The __________is ipsilateral, while the _________ is contralateral.
cerebellum; cerebral cortex
What controls respiration?
the pons (also has CN V-VIII)
What controls basic reflex activities (HR, RR, BP, swallowing, e.g.)?
the medulla oblongata (also has CN IX-XII)
What are normal CSF pressures?
(norm ICP)
5-15 mm/Hg or 60-180 mm/H2O
What is the gate-control theory of pain?
Small C fibers stimulate substantia gelatinosa cells, causing pain.
Large A fibers inhibit the gate.
CNS regulates the gate as well/\.
What is the circadian rhythm?
Daily flunctuations in temp., from activity, environment, and body. Usually = 0.2-0.5 degrees--highest around 6 p.m.
What are mechanisms of heat production?
metabolism, muscle contraction, and chemical thermogenesis.
What are mechanisms of heat loss?
radiation, conduction (molecule-molecule), convection (gas/liquid), vasodilation, <muscle tone, evaporation, >RR, voluntary modifications in activity and clothing, adaptation
Benefits of fever include:
kills pathogens
<Fe, Zinc, and Cu for bac.
prevents viral replication
>transport/lymphocytes (immune system)
loss of ability to think rapidly and clearly, and decision-making
beginning LOC
first to time-then place-then memory-then self
limited movement/speech
easy arousal
may/may not be disoriented
Mod. <arousal
limited response to enviro.
falls asleep w/out stimulus
deep sleep
needs vigorous stimuli to arouse
response = withdrawal or grabbing
no verbal response
no motor movement from noxious stimuli
light coma
purposeful movement with stim.
true coma
nonpurposeful movement only
deep coma
no movement whatsoever
normal breathing
after hyperventilation, individual has reg. RR but shallower breaths
posthyperventilation apnea
after hyperventialtion, breathing stops until PCO2 levels=normal
Cheyne-Stokes respirations
pattern of crescendo to hyperpnea, followed by decrease to apnea
then repeats to hyperpnea
central neurogenic hyperventilation
deep, sustained, rapid hyperpnea--leads to respiratory alkalosis
prolonged inspiratory "cramp"
cluster breathing
disordered sequence of breaths, with irregular pauses
ataxic breathing
completely irregular
rate is often slow
gasping (agonal gasps)
"all-or-none" w/ slow rate
what is the sensory/discriminative pain system?
The actual nerve info on location, intensity, etc.
What is the motivational/affective pain system?
The learned response to pain...varies with culture, personality.
What is the cognitive/ evaluative pain system?
The person's intellectual ability to process event.
What are referred areas for liver pain?
right shoulder, below right scapula
What are referred areas for pancreas pain?
upper middle of spine
left mid-abdomen
What are the four forms of accidental hyperthermia?
heat cramps
heat exhaustion
heat stroke
malignant hyperthermia
What is the average length of one sleep cycle?
1-2 hours
What are parasomnias?
alterations in sleep patterns: somnoabulism, night terrors, enuresis
disconjugate gaze due to muscle weakness in one eye
loss of acuity in one eye due to unknown reason or untreated strabismus--cerebral blockage of visual stimuli.
involuntary jerking of eye
circumscribed central vision, noramlly in one eye--"blind spot"
cloudy or yellow cornea--decreased visual acuity.
associated with age, UV light
near-sightedness--light rays meet before reaching optic disk
far-sightedness--light rays meet after reaching optic disk
What is normal intraocular pressure?
12-20 mm/Hg
loss of rapid/clear thinking; impaired judgment
beginning LOC
first to time- then place- then self
limited spontaneous movement/speech; easy arousal; may/may not be disoriented
mild reduction in arousal w/limited response to enviro.
falls asleep w/out stimulus; min. response to questions
deep sleep/ unresponsive; needs vigorous stimuli to arouse; response is grabbing/ withdrawal
no verbal response to any stimuli; noxious stimuli yield no motor response
*only non-purposeful movement*
light coma
some purposeful movement with stimuli
deep coma
no response to any stimuli
5 categories of neuro function
1. level of consciousness
2. pattern of breathing
3. size and reaction of pupils
4. eye position and reflexive responses
5. skeletal muscle and motor responses
What are some pathologic motor reflexes?
grasp hands; snout reflex; palmomental reflex; sucking
What is the decorticate response?
flexion of arms, wrists, and fingers, with adduction to chest. Extension, internal rotation, and plantar flexion of lower extremities.
What is the decerebrate response?
all four extremities in rigid extension-- hyperpronation of forearms, plantar extension of feet.
What is cerebral death?
irreversible coma--vegetative state, MCS, lock-in syndrome.
No goal oriented behavior.
Homeostasis can usually be maintained independently.
What is brain death?
brain stem death--no independent homeostasis. No life w/out a ventilator.
What is agnosia?
failure to recognize form/nature of objects.
can be: tactile (cannot ID with feel)
spatial (cannot find way around home/familiar area)
agraphia (cannot write)
What is dysphasia?
impairment of the comprehension/ production of language
What is aphasia?
inability to produce/comprehend language
What is delirium?
very sudden acute confusional state--restless inability to concentrate; insomnia; unpleasant dreams.
Can be due to psycho. prob.
What is dementia?
progressive loss of more than one cognitive function. No specific treatment; no recovery.
What are diseases that can affect ICP?
herniation; hemorrhagic stroke; tumor; hematoma; hydrocephalus; cerebral edema.
What are ratings on the Glasgow Coma Scale?
13-15= minor
9-12= moderate
<8= severe
< muscle tone
> muscle tone
can be spastic (>DTRs) or rigidity
< spontatneous voluntary movement
excessive movements--Parkinson's, e.g.
lack of movement
very slow movement
usually from closed, blunt trauma.
compression of brain leads to bleeding and bruising--due to tearing of small blood vessels. Can be minor to severe
injury to arteries that bridge brain.
Can be minor to severe--based on number of vessels affected.
Can=herniation of ventricle`
closed head trauma, w/ or w/out LOC;
disorientation, headache, N/V, FATIGUE
Post-Concussive syndrome
can last up to 1 year
Irritability, mood changes, lack of concentration, fatigue.
degeneration of vertebral column, especially in lumbar area
sliding forward of vertebral column--generally in low back
spinal stenosis
narrowing of spinal canal--trouble bending down
What is the generic diagnosis for DDDs and DJDs?
low back pain
herniated intervertebral disk
herniation of disk leads to compression of vertebra, compression of spinal column.
nerve irritation in sciatic nerve
motor impairment due to compressed/injured nerve(s)
thrombotic stroke
arteries supplying brain occluded by thrombi from arterial occlusions
Transient Ischemic Attack
a temporary thrombotic stroke: S/S last only 24 hrs.
stoke in evolution
thrombotic stroke that is occurring at admittance
completed stroke
all damage to brain has occured
embolic stroke
a thrombotic type stroke, due to emboli from other areas of body
*often recur*
what are some causes of embolic stroke?
atrial fibrillation, MI, valvualr prosthesis, rheumatic HD, disorders of veins/arteries