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35 Cards in this Set

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intra/extracellular [Na+] (in mMoles)
Intra - 15
extra - 150
intra/extracellular [K] (in mMoles)
intra - 150
extra - 5.5
intra/extracellular [Ca] (in mMoles)
intra - .0001
extra - 2
intra/extracellular [Mg] (in mMoles)
intra - 58
extra - 3
intra/extracellular [Cl] (in mMoles)
intra - 5-15
extra - 125
intra/extracellular [HCO3-] (in mMoles)
intra - 10
extra - 28
intra/extracellular [PO4] (in mMoles)
intra - 75
extra - 4
intra/extracellular [SO4] (in mMoles)
intra - 2
extra - 1
intra/extracellular pH
intra - 7.2
extra - 7.4
ICF - % of body weight? Content?
30-40% of body weight
high K+, high proteins,
low Na+, low Ca2+, low Cl-
ECF - % of body weight? Content?
27% of body weight
high Ca2+, high Na+
Low K+
Where is transcellular fluid? (6 ex.)
closed cavities
joints, cerebral ventricles, S.C., intra-ocular fluid, digest. juices, cartilage/bone matrices
What holds many membrane parts in place (=> regions of relative conc.)
cytoskeleton
4 characteristics of simple diffusion
1. low temp. sensitivity
2. no saturation with ^ conc.
3.sensitive to lipid solubility, + size, not slight strux. differences.
4. sub.s move down conc. gradient
relative permeability of 7 common substances
gases (O2, CO2)>>
EtOH>H2O>urea>glucose>K+>Na+
1. Electrical characteristics of membrane (3)
2. What does it act as?
3. What kind of circuit can it be called?
1. resistance, capacitance, Electromotive force (EMF)
2. insulator
3. equivalent circuit
1. How does H2O move relative to its expected speed across a membrane? relative to similar molecules?
2. Why? (2 hypotheses)
1. Faster, faster
2. Watery pores in membrane, or H2O passes b/t adj. PO4lipids w/o dissolving in membrane
1. Where is hydrostatic pressure important? 2. Where is it unimportant?
1. Important for H2O in/out of capillaries
2. negligible across cell membranes
Normal ICF osmolar concentration
.3 osmoles/L
300 milliosmoles/L
1. What is important about solutes in ICF in the context of osmosis?
2. So what?
1. Only concentration, not chemical/physical properties
2. Salts, which dissociate, can be 2-3+ x more osmotically active than other molecules
What can define the osmotic pressure difference b/t solutions?
hydrostatic pressure that just prevents net movement of H2O
isotonic vs. hypotonic vs. hypertonic
solutions- what happens to a cell in each?
isotonic - cell neither grows nor shrinks
hypotonic - cell grows, can lyse
hypertonic - cell shrinks
5 characteristics of facilitated diffuson
1. no energy req'd - down conc. grad.
2. saturability of rate of tx.
3. strux. specificity (incl. enantiomeric)
4.competitive inhibition
5. temperature dependence
important example of active tx
Na+/K+ pump - Na+ out, K+ in against gradients
5 characteristics of active tx
1. energy needed - against conc. grad.
2. saturability of rate of tx.
3. strux. specificity (incl. enantiomeric)
4. competitive inhibition
5. temperature dependence
primary active tx. - 1. def
2. ex.
1. Uses metabolic energy directly (tx. protein has ATP, drives conform. change to tx. molecule across.
2. Na+/K+ pump
secondary active tx.
1. def.
2. ex.
1. Tx of one sub. up conc. grad. powered by tx. of another down its grad. (2nd grad. maide by active tx.)
2. Na+/Ca2+ exchanger - Ca up, Na down
Failure of Na/K pump can cause what secondary effect?
changes in level sof ICF/ECF Ca2+
Are more ion channels passive or active?
Most are active
How does selectivity of ion channels work - 1. what does it select, and 2. how does it recognize?
1. 1 ion or group of ions over others
2. polarity of ions picks up H2O envelope based on density of charge - Na is more dense than K, --> larger envelope, --> larger overall size
Passive channel - def
Always remains open
Voltage-activated channel - def, 3 ex.
has voltage sensor, is activated at certain voltages. Can be inactivating (Na, Ca in depolariz. phase of AP and Ca influx in bouton) or non-inactivating (K in AP)
receptor-activated channel - def, 1 ex, 2 potential ligands
stimulated by ligand (or neurotrans.)
ex. non-selective cation channel in synaptic txmission
ligands: acetylcholine, L-glutamate
Limits to frequency of activation of inactivating vs. non-inactivating channels
inactivating - time for reactivation
non-inactivating - no limit
2 forces driving ions across membrane
concentration gradient, gradient of electrical potential difference (like voltage difference across all cell membranes)