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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Structure & Location:
Capsule surrounds mass of dendrites in dermal papillae of hairless skin

Fine touch, pressure & slow vibrations

Adaption Rate:
Corpuscles of Touch
(Meissner Corpuscles)
Structure & Location
Free Nerve Endings wrapped around hair follicles in skin.


Adaptation Rate:
Hair Root Plexuses
Structure & Location
Saucer shaped free nerve endings make contact with Merkel cells in epidermis

Touch & Pressure

Adaptation Rate:
Type 1 Cutaneous Mechanoreceptors
(tactile or Merkel disc.
Structure & Location:
Elongated capsule surrounds dendrites deep in dermis & in ligaments & tendons

stretching of skin

Adaptation Rate:
Type 2 Cutaneous Mechanoreceptors
(Ruffini Corpuscles)
Structure & Location:
Oval, layered capsule surrounds dendrites; present in dermis & subcutaneous layer, submucosal tissues, joints, periosteum, & some viscera

Pressure, fast vibrations & tickling

Adaptation Rate:
Lamellated (Pacinian) Corpuscles
Structure & Location:
Free nerve endings in skin & mucous membranes of mouth, vagina, & anus

Warmth or Cool

Adaptation Rate:
Rapid initially then slow
Warm Receptors & Cold Receptors
Structure & Location:
Free nerve endings and lamellated corpuscles in skin & mucous membranes

Itching & Tickling

Adaptation Rate:
Both slow & Rapid
Itch & Tickle Receptors
Structure & Location:
Free nerve endings in every tissue of the body except the brain.


Adaptation Rate:
Structure & Location:
Free nerve endings wrap around central area of encapsulated intrafusal muscle fibers within most skeletal muscles

Muscle Length:

Adaptation Rate:
Muscle Spindles
Structure & Location:
Capsule encloses collagen fibers & sensory nerve endings at junction of tendon & muscle

Muscle Tension

Adaptation Rate:
Tendon Organs
Structure & Location:
Lamellated corpuscles, Ruffini corpuscles, tendon organs, & free nerve endings.

Joint position & movement

Adaptation Rate:
Joint Kinesthetic receptors
Tactile Receptors:
6 of them
1. Corpuscles of Touch (Meissner)
2. Hair Root Plexuses
3. Type I Cutaneous Mechanoreceptors (tactile or Merkel disc
4. Type II Cutaneous Mechanoreceptors (Ruffini)
5. Lamellated Corpuscles (Pacinian)
6. Itch & Tickle Receptors
2 of them
Warm & Cold Receptors
Pain Receptors
1 type
3 types
1. Muscle Spindles
2. Tendon Organs
3. Joint Kinesthetic Receptors
Bare dendrites associated with pain, thermal, tickle, itch, & some touch sensations.
Free Nerve Endings
Dendrites enclosed in a connective tissue capsule, such as a corpuscle of touch
Encapsulated Nerve Endings
Receptor cell synapses with first-order neurons; located in the retina of the eye (photoreceptors), inner ear (hair cells), & taste buds of the tongue (gustatory receptor cells).
Separate Cells
Located at or near body surface; sensitive to stimuli originating outside body; provide information about external environment; convey visual, smell, taste, touch, pressure, vibration, thermal, & pain sensations.
Located in blood vessels, visceral organs, & nervous system; provide information about internal environment; impulses produced usually are not consciously perceived but occasionally may be felt as pain or pressure.
Located in muscles, tendons, joints, & inner ear; provide information about body position, muscle length & tension, position & motion of joints, & equilibrium (balance).
Detect mechanical pressure; provide sensations of touch, pressure, vibration, proprioception, & hearing, & equilibrium; also monitor stretching of blood vessels & internal organs.
Detect changes in temperature
Respond to stimuli resulting from physical or chemical damage to tissue.
Detect light that strikes the retina of the eye.
Detect chemicals in mouth (taste), nose (smell), & body fluids.
Sense the osmotic pressure of body fluids.
Process of Sensation
1. Stimulation of Sensory Receptor
2. Transduction of the Stimulus
3. Generation of impulse
4. Integration of Sensory Input
Conduct impulses from somatic receptors in the brain stem or spinal cord.
First Order Neurons
Conduct impulses from the brain stem & spinal cord to the thalamus. Axons decussate in the brain stem or spinal cord before ascending to the ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus.
Second Order Neurons
Conduct impulses from the thalamus to the primary somatosensory are of the cortex on the same side.
Third Order Neurons
The ability to recognize the size, shape, & texture of an object bu feeling it.
The awareness of the precise position of body parts.
Arise when rapidly fluctuating touch stimuli are present.
Vibratory Sensations
The awareness of direction of movement of body parts.
Ability to assess the weight of an object
Weight Discrimination
Humans sleep & awaken in a 24-hour cycle that is established by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. This cycle is known as ______ ________.
Circadian Rhythm
transition from sleep to consciousness involving the activation of the Reticular Activating System and thus activating the cerebral cortex.
a state of wakefulness in which an individual is fully alert, aware, & oriented, partly as a result of individual is fully alert, aware, & oriented, partly as a result of feedback between the cerebral cortex & reticular activating system.
State of altered consciousness or partial unconsciousness from which an individual can be aroused.
transition stage between wakefulness & sleep that normally lasts 1-7 minutes. The person is relaxed with eyes closed & has fleeting thoughts.
Alpha waves diminish.
Stage 1 of sleep
stage of sleep wherein a person is a little more difficult to awaken. Fragments of dreams may be experienced & the eyes may roll slowly from side to side.
Sleep spindles occur.
Sleep Stage 2 (light sleep)
Period of moderately deep sleep. Body temperature & blood pressure decrease. The person is difficult to awaken. This stage occurs about 20 minutes after falling asleep.
Mixture of sleep spindles & larger, lower frequency waves.
Sleep Stage 3
Deepest level of sleep wherein brain metabolism significantly decreases & body temperature drops slightly. Most reflexes are still intact & muscle tone is decreased only slightly. Sleepwalking occurs in this stage.
Slow, large amplitude delta waves dominate.
Sleep Stage 4
Stage of sleep in which dreaming occurs, lasting for 5 to 10 minutes several times during a sleep cycle; characterized by rapid movements of the eyes beneath the eyelids.
Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep