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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The molecular action of Strettera is that it acts as a
a. dopamine transporter blocker.
b. norepinephrine transporter blocker.
c. serotonin transporter blocker.
d. dopamine receptor blocker.
e. norepinephrine receptor blocker.
b. norepinephrine transporter blocker.
The molecular action of Ritalin (methylphenidate) is similar to
a. amphetamine.
b. Valium.
c. Prozac.
d. cocaine.
e. Adderall.
d. cocaine.
Which of the following is NOT a proposed model of ADHD?
a. Inhibition as a conditioning deficit - ADHD is due to poor inhibition.
b. Inhibition as an inefficient inhibitory control response - based on "race model".
c. Response inhibition is the primary deficit - secondary deficit is executive control deficiency.
d. Inhibition as deviance rather than deficit - anticipatory signal to aversion is delayed.
e. Impulsivity as a behavioral defiant - primary deficit is conduct disorder.
e. Impulsivity as a behavioral defiant - primary deficit is conduct disorder.
Longitudinal study of ADHD patients over the course of 10 years showed that
a. behavioral therapy is more effective than pharmacotherapy.
b. pharmacotherapy therapy significantly improves the condition while behavioral is ineffective.
c. pharmacotherapy is ineffective.
d. neither behavioral therapy nor pharmacotherapy is effective in treating ADHD patients.
e. ADHD patients are addictive to Ritalin.
b. pharmacotherapy therapy significantly improves the condition while behavioral is ineffective.
Double blind study of ADHD patients showed that
a. Ritalin is more effective than amphetamine.
b. amphetamine is more effective than Ritalin.
c. both Ritalin and amphetamine are ineffective.
d. the effects of Ritalin and amphetamine is indistinguishable from each other, i.e., equally effective.
e. Ritalin is no better than placebo.
d. the effects of Ritalin and amphetamine is indistinguishable from each other, i.e., equally effective.
The neurochemical deficiency model of ADHD suggests that the biological origin of ADHD is based on the
a. hyper-dopamine hypothesis.
b. hypo-dopamine hypothesis.
c. hyper-serotonin hypothesis.
d. hypo-serotonin hypothesis.
e. hyper-GABA hypothesis.
b. hypo-dopamine hypothesis.
The dopaminergic neural circuitry involved in executive control that often found deficient in ADHD patients is located in
a. prefrontal cortex.
b. nucleus accumbens.
c. ventral tegmental area (VTA).
d. basal ganglia.
e. amygdala.
a. prefrontal cortex.
The therapeutic effect of Ritalin in ADHD patients at the right dosage is
a. agitation.
b. hyperactivity.
c. hyperarousal.
d. hypervigilant.
e. calming effect.
e. calming effect.
The effect of Ritalin in normal people is
a. hyperactivity and hyperarousal.
b. depression.
c. anxiety.
d. epilepsy.
e. calming effect.
a. hyperactivity and hyperarousal.
The prevalence of ADHd in general population is
a. <1%
b. 3-5%
c. 10%
d. 25%
e. 50%
b. 3-5%
The prevalence of schizophrenia in general population is
a. 1%
b. 5%
c. 10%.
d. 20%
e. 50%
a. 1%
The lifetime risk of schizophrenia in monozygotic twins is
a. 1%
b. 5%
c. 10%
d. 15%
e. 50%
e. 50%
Schizophrenia is primarily
a. an affective disorder.
b. a mood disorder
c. a motor disorder
d. a thought disorder
e. an aging disorder
d. a thought disorder
The characteristic of hallucination in schizophrenia is that most often it is
a. visual hallucination
b. tactile hallucination
c. auditory hallucination
d. olfactory hallucination
e. motor hallucination
c. auditory hallucination
The catatonic subtype of schizophrenia is characterized by
a. thought disturbances
b. motor disturbances
c. mood disturbances
d. hallucination
e. paranoia
b. motor disturbances
Positive symptoms are characterized by
a. freeze posture
b. blunt emotion
c. speechlessness
d. excessive motor behavior, thought or emotion
e. devoid of motor behavior, thought or emotion
d. excessive motor behavior, thought or emotion
When a patient is inflicting injury to himself/herself, it can be diagnosed as
a. paranoid subtype
b. disorganized subtype
c. catatonic subtype
d. negative symptoms
e. delusional
c. catatonic subtype
The disorganized subtype of schizophrenia is characteristic of
a. a motor disorder
b. an affective disorder
c. a mood disorder
d. an anxiety disorder
e. a thought disorder
e. a thought disorder
Atypical antipsychotics are most effective in treating
a. positive symptoms
b. negative symptoms
c. catatonic subtype
d. paranoid subtype
e. disorganized subtype
b. negative symtpoms
The molecular action of typical antipsychotics is that it acts as a
a. dopamine transporter blocker
b. serotonin transporter blocker
c. norepinephrine transporter blocker
d. dopamine receptor blocker
e. norepinephrine receptor blocker
d. dopamine receptor blocker
The onset of schizophrenia usually occurs at
a. infancy
b. early childhood
c. late teens or early twenties
d. late adulthood
e. birth
c. late teens or early twenties
The pathological abnormalities of schizophrenia include the following except one. Which i the exception?
a. abnormal neural migration
b. abnormal synaptogenesis
c. abnormal neural pruning
d. abnormal neural apoptosis
e. abnormal cardiac development
e. abnormal cardiac development
One of the robust physiological tests for schizophrenia is
a. Stroop test
b. tower of Hanoi test
c. stop-task test
d. water maze test
e. pre-pulse inhibition test
e. pre-pulse inhibition test
The gating hypotheses for schizophrenia suggests that schizophrenia is due to the
a. inability to suppress sensory stimuli, thus resulting in sensory overload
b. race model in which the thoughts are racing too fast
c. impulsivity that lacks inhibition
d. hyperactivity that is resulted from over-excitation of the motor system
e. inattention that is resulted from lack of focus
a. inability to suppress sensory stimuli, thus resulting in sensory overload
The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that the biological origin of schizophrenia is due to
a. hyper-dopamine function
b. hypo-dopamine function
c. hyper-serotonin function
d. hyper-serotonin function
e. hyper-activity function
a. hyper-dopamine function
One of the side effects of typical antipsychotic is
a. epilepsy
b. anxiety
c. depression
d. attention deficit
e. lactation
e. lactation
Another side-effect of typical antipsychotic is
a. extrapyramidal side-effect
b. delusion
c. grandiosity
d. paranoia
e. deranged
a. extrapyramidal side-effect
The drug-induced pyschosis by ketamine or PCP (phencyclidine) is characterized by
a. catatonic symptoms
b. paranoia
c. disembodiment (out-of-body experience) and/or dissociative sensory perception
d. emotional trauma
e. self-inflicted injury
c. disembodiment (out-of-body experience) and/or dissociative sensory perception
The drug-induced psychosis by cocaine is characterized by
a. dissociative sensory perception and disembodiment
b. catatonic subtype
c. disorganized subtype
d. paranoia, grandiosity and self-inflated ego
e. blunt emotion and flat affect
d. paranoia, grandiosity and self-inflated ego
The drug-induced psychosis by LCD (lysergic acid diethylamide) is characterized by
a. dissociative sensory perception and disembodiment
b. sensory distortion and hallucination
c. motor disturbances
d. flat affect
e. monotonous or incoherent speech
b. sensory distortion and hallucination
Persecutory delusion is a characteristic of
a. catatonic subtype
b. disorganized subtype
c. paranoid subtype
d. negative symptoms
e. blunt emotion
c. paranoid subtype
The environmental stressors that are linked to the onset of schizophrenia include the following except one. Which is the exception?
a. emotional negativity
b. critical or emotionality and over-involved family climate
c. over-stimulation of social environment
d. stressful life event that is beyond personal control (life crisis)
e. positive environment and self-efficacy
e. positive environment and self-efficacy
The neural pathology of schizophrenia includes the following except one. Which is the exception?
a. reduction in basal ganglia
b. atrophy in cortex especially in prefrontal cortex
c. reduction in temporal lobe and parahippocampus layers
d. disorganization in hippocampus layers
e. reduction in cerebellum
e. reduction in cerebellum
In talk therapy, the process of self-disclosure by telling the hidden secrets of hallucination in schizophrenia is expanding the
a. open pane and diminishing the unknown pane
b. open pane and diminishing the blind pane
c. open pane and diminishing the hidden pane
d. blind pane and diminishing the open pane
e. hidden pane and diminishing the open pane
c. open pane and diminishing the hidden pane
Cocaine alkaloid has the property of
a. pyrolysis
b. resist pyrolysis
c. extending its half-life
d. reducing its half-life
e. active isomer
a. pyrolysis
The molecular action of cocaine is that it acts as a
a. dopamine transporter blocker
b. norepinephrine transporter blocker
c. serotonin transporter blocker
d. dopamine receptor blocker
e. serotonin receptor blocker
a. dopamine transporter blocker
The temporary inhibition of dopamine synthesis induced by cocaine is due to the
a. blocking the dopamine transporter
b. reversing the dopamine transporter
c. compensatory response by autoreceptors
d. blocking the dopamine post-synaptic receptor
e. blocking the enzymatic breakdown of dopamine
c. compensatory response by autoreceptors
The behavioral effects of cocaine at low dose includ the following except one. Which is the exception?
a. increase sociability
b. increase talkativity
c. heighten sexual interest
d. increase exhilaration
e. increase in motor stereotypy
e. increase in motor stereotypy
The physiological effect of cocaine is
a. sympathomimetic
b. parasympathomimetic
c. decrease in heart rate and breathing rate
d. decrease in body temperature
e. increase in urination
a. sympathomimetic
The reinforcing property of cocaine is due to the activation of
a. cerebellum
b. thalamus
c. hypothalamus
d. nucleus accumbens
e. amygdala
d. nucleus accumbens
The window pane in Johari window that is known to others but not to self is called the
a. open pane
b. blind pane
c. hidden pane
d. unknown pane
e. mystery pane
b. blind pane
During the "crash" phase of cocaine abstinence syndrome, the most common symptoms include the following except one. Which is the exception?
a. dysphoria
b. agitation
c. intense craving
d. depression
e. anhedonia - inability to experience pleasure
e. anhedonia - inability to experience pleasure
Longitudinal study of crack babies over years showed that they
a. suffer permanent brain damage
b. suffer permanent psychological maladjustment
c. show symptoms of thought disorder
d. show no psychological or neurological deficits
e. show signs of cocaine withdrawal
d. show no psychological or neurological deficits
The abstinence rate of behavioral therapy in treating cocaine dependence after 6 months is
a. unknown
b. 100%
c. 50%
d. 25%
e. <10%
e. <10%
Intermittent use of cocaine can lead to
a. tolerance
b. sensitization
c. cocaine toxicity
d. brain damage
e. depletion of dopamine from axon terminal
b. sensitization
The theory of cocaine sensitization process is mediated via
a. release of seotonin
b. activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis
c. stimulation of cerebellum
d. dopamine induced glutamate release stimulating NMDA receptors resulting in gene expression
e. blockade of the breakdown of dopamine
d. dopamine induced glutamate release stimulating NMDA receptors resulting in gene expression
Symptoms of depression include the following except one. Which is the exception?
a. diminished interests in all activities
b. diminished experiencing pleasurable activities
c. diminished ability to think or concentrate or make decision
d. engaging in risk-taking behavior
e. feeling of worthless
d. engaging in risk-taking behavior
The characteristics of mania include the following except one. Which is the exception?
a. decrease need for sleep
b. feeling faultless
c. burst of energy
d. full of fun
e. anhedonia
e. anhedonia
SAD (seasonal affective disorder) is most effectively treated by
a. talk therapy
b. antidepressant
c. bright-light exposure therapy
d. humor
e. CNS stimulants
c. bright-light exposure therapy
The model of stress factors induced changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in depression suggests that long-term stress leads to the release of
a. CRF (cortical releasing factor) in the hypothalamus
b. adrenaline release in the adrenal medulla
c. dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and VTA
d. serotonin release in the raphe nucleus
e. acetylcholine release in the basal forebrain complex
a. CRF (cortical releasing factor) in the hypothalamus
The neural pathway that is stimulated by cocaine administration involves
a. cerebellum
b. thalamus
c. nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area (VTA)
d. visual cortex
e. hippocampus
c. nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area (VTA)
High dose of cocaine can lead to
a. paranoia
b. extrapyramidal side-effect
c. epileptic seizure
d. depression
e. loss of memory
b. extrapyramidal side-effect
Intra-cranial electrical self-stimulation of the nucleus accumbens can produce an effect that
a. substitutes for cocaine administration
b. leads to seizure
c. leads to depression
d. substitutes for SSRI
e. lead to coma
a. substitutes for cocaine administration
Characteristics of depression include the following except one. Which is the exception?
a. hopelessness
b. helplessness
c. worthlessness
d. elation
e. despair
d. elation