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1512 Cards in this Set

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What is neuroscience?
is the study of neurons and the pathways they create
NAME
this is the study of neurons and the pathways they create
neuroscience
Neurons create (1)
pathways
What are some fields of science that are part of neuroscience?(2)
(1)neuroanatomy (2)pathology
What are the differ ways that can study neurosceince? (5)
(1)molecular (2)celluar (3)systems (4)behavioral (5)cogintive
NAME
there are 5 ways to study this: molecular, cellualar, systems, behavioral, and coginitive
neuroscience
What is the molecular approach to studying neuroscience?
is the study of ions and neurotransmitters
NAME
this is the study of ions and neurotransmitters
the molecular approach to studying neuroscience
What is the cellular approach to studying neuroscience?
is the study of differ neuropathways
NAME
this is the study of differ neuropathways
is the cellular approach to studying neuroscience
What do you need neurons for?
chemical synapse
What are (2)types of cells in the NS?
(1)neurons (2)glial cells
NAME
there are two types of these cells here: neurons and glial cells
NS
The NS has two types of cells (1)and (2)
(1)neurons (2)glial cells
What is an ion?
has either a positive or negative charge
NAME
this has either a postive or negative charge
ion
What is molecule?
is 2 or more atoms linked together w chemical bonds
What is the differ btwn a ion and a molecule?
(1)ion-has a postive or negative charge (2)molecule-is 2 or more atoms linked together by chemical bonds
NAME
these are the only cells that can tramsit a nerve impulse
neurons
neurons are the only cells that can (1)
transmit a nerve impulse
What are glial cells?
help neurons by keeping neurotissue together and providing a supportive function
NAME
these help neurons by keeping neurptissue together and providing a supportive function
glial cells
What is the differ btwn neurons and glial cells? (2)
(1)neurons are the main cells (2)glial cells help neurons
nerve impulse is also called (1)
action potential
the (1)is also called action potential
nerve impulse
What is glial cells latin for?
glue
NAME
this is latin for glue
glial cells
Give an example of a pathway?
reflex
Reflex is an example of a (1)
pathway
What are 2 pathways that are used in reflex?
(1)motor and sensory
Explain the pathways when you extend your knee
femoral and motor fibers orginate from the lumboscacral plexus which orginates from the spinal cord in the anterior horn
what nerve supplies the quads muscle expt the rectus femoris?
femoral nerve
What is the behavorial approach to studying neurosceince?
the study of the nervous responses of an organism
NAME
this is the stdy of the nervous responses of an organism
behavoral aprroach to neuroscience
Before you can initiate response you need a (1)
stimuli
What is the cogintive appraoch to studying neuroscience?
study of higher learning functions
NAME
this is the study of higher learning functions
the cogintive approach to studying neuroscience
What are some higher learning functions?(6)
(1)learning (2)memory (3)planning (4)language (5)intelligence (6)writing (7)
What are some examples of glial cells? (5)
(1)astrocytes (2)microgilla (3)schwann cells (4)oligodendrocytes (5)ependymal
What are some examples of glial cells? (5)
(1)astrocytes (2)microgilla (3)schwann cells (4)oligodendrocytes (5)ependymal
WHat are astrocytes?
maintain the Blood brain barrier
NAME
these glial cells maintian the blood brain barrier
astrocytes
What are microgilla?
are phagocytic glial cells
NAME
these are phagocytic glial cells
microgilla
What does phagocytic mean?
refers to engulfing debris
What are Schwann cells?
are glial cells found in the PNS that produce myelin
NAME
these are glial cells found in the PNS taht produce myelin
Schwann cells
What are oligodendrocytes?
are glial cells found in the CNS that produce myelin
NAME
these are glial cells found in the PNS that produce myelin
Schwann cells
How are schwann and oligodendrocytes similar?
they both produce myelin
NAME
these glial cells are similar bc the both produce myelin
(1)schwann cells (2)oligodendrocytes
How are schwann and oligodendorcytes different? (2)
(1)schwann cells are found in the PNS (2)oligodendrocytes are found in the CNS
How are schwann and oligodendorcytes different? (2)
Somtimes People Outwit Cats

(1)schwann cells are found in the PNS (2)oligodendrocytes are found in the CNS
Where are oligodendrocytes found?
in the CNS
Where are the schwann cells found?
in the PNS
What is the myelin sheath?
wraps around and insulate neuron's axons
NAME
this wraps around and insulates neuron's axons
myelin sheath
What is Ependymal?
are glial cells that cover or line inside the ventricles
NAME
these are glial cells that cover or line inside the ventricles
ependymal
WHat does the somatic system?
provides voluntary innervation to the musculoskeletal systems
NAME
provides voluntary innervation to the musculaoskeletal systems
somatic system
When you voluntary chose to move you activate what system?
somatic system
What is the autonomic system?
is the involuntary system that monitors digestion, breathing, and heart rate
NAME
this is an involuntary system that monitors digestion, breathing, and heart rate
autonomic system
(1)and (2)are anatomical classifications of NS
CNS and PNS
What are the anatomical classifications of the NS? (2)
(1)CNS (2)PNS
What are the physical classifications of the NS? (2)
SNS (2)ANS
(1)and (2) are the physical classifications of NS
(1)SNS (2)ANS
SNS and ANS are the (1)class of NS
physical
CNS and PNS are the (1)class of the NS
anatomical
SNS and ANS are part of both (1)and (2)
CNS and PNS
(1)and (2)are part of both the CNS and PNS
SNS and ANS
Can you find nerves in the CNS?
no
nerves are only found in the (1)
PNS
(1)are only found in the PNS
nerves
WHat makes of the CNS?
anything encased in bone including the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord, and cerebellum
NAME
this includes anything encased in bone including the brain stem, spinal cord, and cerebellum
CNS
What makes up the PNS? (3)
(1)12CN (2)31 SN (3)ganglia
NAME
this has 12 CN, 31 SN and ganglia
PNS
How many cranial nerves are there?
12
How many SN are there?
31
there are (1)CN
12
there are (1)SN
31
What is gray matter?
are areas w only cell bodies of neurons that tend to form clusters
NAME
these are areas w only cell bodies of neurons that tend to form clustors
gray matter
What is white matter?
are areas w mylen
NAME
these are areas w mylen
white matter
What is the differ btwn gray and white matter?(2)
(1)gray matter-are areas w only cell bodies of neurons that tend to form clusters (2)white matter-have mylen
in the brain, where is the gray matter?
on the outside
In the brain, where is the white matter located?
on the inside
In the brain, where is white matter located?
on the inside
in the spinal cord, where is the gray matter located?
on the inside
What is the differ btwn where the gray and white matter are located in the brain vs the spinal cord (2)
(1)in the brain, gray matter is on the oustide and white matter is on the inside (2)in the spinal cord, gray matter is on the inside and white matter is on the oustide
What are nuclei?
are clustors of cell bodies in the CNS
NAME
these are clustors of cell bodies in the CNS
nuclei
What are ganglioa?
is a clustor of cell bodies in the PNS
NAME
these are clustors of cell bodies in the PNS
ganglioa
What is the differ btwn nuclei and ganglioa?(2)
(1)nuclei-are clustor of cell bodies in the CNS (2)ganglioa-are clustors of cell bodies in the PNS
What is the differ btwn nuclei and ganglioa?(2)
(1)nuclei-are clustor of cell bodies in the CNS (2)ganglioa-are clustors of cell bodies in the PNS
NAME
this is the functional unit of the neuron
neuron
What makes of a neuron?(4)
(1)cell body (2)processes (3)dendrites (4)axon
NAME
this consists of cell body, processes, dendrites, and axon
neuron
What are afferent fibers?
convey info into the CNS
NAME
these fibers convey info into the CNS
sensory fibers
Afferent fibers are also called (1)
sensory
(1)fibers are also called sensory fibers
afferent
What are efferent fibers?
transmit info from the CNS to the peripheral structures
NAME
these fibers transmit info from the CNS to the peripheral structures
motor fibers
motor fibers are also called (1)
efferent
(1)are also called efferent
motor fibers
What are interneurons?
they connect neurons to other neurons
NAME
these connect neurons to other neurons
interneurons
NAME
these are non-neuronal cells that provide services to other neurons
glial cells
NAME
these system provides bidirectional communication btwn the brain and smooth muscle, cardic muscle, and gland cells
autonomic systems
NAME
this system transmits info from the brain to skeletal muscles
somatic system
the somatic system transmits info from the brain to the (1)
skeletal muscles
the autonomic system provides bidirectional btwn the (1)and (2)
(1)brain (2)smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and gland cells
What are (5)main regions of the NS?
(1)peripheral (2)spinal (3)brain stem (4)cerebrellar (5)cerebral regions
The cerebral region contains the (1)
diencephalon and cerebral hemispheres
The (1)region contains the dienceaphalon
cerebral region
CSF fills the (1)
ventricles
(1)fills the ventricles
CSF
What is tract?
is a bundle of axons in the CNS
NAME
this is a bundle of axons in the CNS
tract
What are some other names for tract?(5)
(1)lemincus (2)fasciculus (3)column (4)peduncle (5)capusle
What are some other names for tract?(5)
(1)lemincus (2)fasciculus (3)column (4)peduncle (5)capusle
What are some other names for tract?(5)
(1)lemincus (2)fasciculus (3)column (4)peduncle (5)capusle
What is gangila?
cluster of cell bodies in the PNS
NAME
cluster of cell bodies in the PNS
ganglia
What is the differ btwn nuceli and ganglia?(2)
(1)nuceli-cluster of cell bodies w in the CNS (2)ganglian-cluster of cell bodies in the pNS
T or F
there are nuceli in the PNS
false
T or F
there are ganglian in the CNS
false
gray matter on the surface on the brain is called (1)
cortex
What is the cortex?
refers to gray matter on the surface of the brain
NAME
this refers to gray matter on th e surface of the brain
cortex
Peripheral nerves have (1)and (2)axons
afferent and efferent
What are (2)main functions of the spinal cord?
(1)to conduct information btwn the peripheral and the brain (2)to process info
NAME
this has two functions: to conduct info btwn the peripheral and the brain to process info
spinal cord
the cord conevys (1)info to the brain and also conveys singals from the brain to control movement
somatosensory
What is the somatosensory system?
conveys info from the skin and musculoskeletal system to areas of the brain
NAME
this coneys info from the skin and musculoskeletal systems to areas of the brain
somatosensory system
the plexus that originate from the upper and lower exterminates originate from the (1)
spine
NAME
this houses vital involuntary functions including RR, digestion, breathing, and alertness
brain stem
What is the brain stem?
this houses the involuntary functions including RR, digestion, breathing, and alertness
how many CN exit from the brain stem?
10 out of 12
How many CN do not exit from the brain stem?
2 out of 12
How are the CN and SN differ?
CN have differ functions while the SN all have similaral functios at differ levels
What is the cerebellum?
coordinates movement such as coordination
NAME
this coordinates movement like coordination
cerebellum
What are the cerebral hemispheres?
provide you with your higher mental functions
NAME
this part of your brain provides you with your higher mental functions
cerebral hemispheres
What are some support systems for the brain?
(1)CSF (2)meninges (3)vascular structures
What is CSF?
modifed version of plasma that tranfsers nutrients and O2 to the brain
NAME
this is a modified version of plasma that tranfers nutrients and O2 to the brain
CSF
What are pendicles?
are large bundles of fibers found in the cerebellum
NAME
these are large bundles of fibers found in the cerebellum
pendicles
What is the vermis?
refers to the "worm" midline that divides the cerebellular hemispheres
NAME
this refers to the "worm" midline that divides the cerebellular hemispheres
vermis
WHat is the epithalamus?
consists primalry of the pineal gland
NAME
this consists primarly of the pineal gland
epithalamus
What does the thalamus do?(4)
relays info to the cerebal cortex (2)process emotional and some memory info (3)intergarte diffterent types of sensation (4)regulate consciousness arousal, and attention
What does the thalamus do?(4)
relays info to the cerebal cortex (2)process emotional and some memory info (3)intergarte diffterent types of sensation (4)regulate consciousness arousal, and attention
NAME
this relays info to the cerebral cortex, processes emotional and some memory fino, intergrate different types of sensation, and regulates consciousness, arousal, and attention
thalamus
What are some functions of the hypothalamus? (2)
(1)maintains body temperature, metabolic rate, and the chemical composition of tissues and fluids w an optimal functional range (2)regulates eating, reproductive, and defensive behaviors, expression of emotions, growth, and function of the reproductive organs
What are some functions of the hypothalamus? (2)
(1)maintains body temperature, metabolic rate, and the chemical composition of tissues and fluids w an optimal functional range (2)regulates eating, reproductive, and defensive behaviors, expression of emotions, growth, and function of the reproductive organs
What is the limbic system?
is involved w emotions and processing of some types of memories
NAME
this is involved w emotions and processing some types of memories
limbic system
NAME
this has limited capacity for healing
CNS
What are the (3)meninges?
(1)dura mater (2)arachnoid mater (3)pia mater
NAME
this has three layer of connective tissue that protects and covers the CNS
menginges
What are the meninges?
are 3 layers of connective tissue that protect and cover the CNS
What is mater latin for?
mother
What is dura latin for?
strong
NAME
this is latin for strong
dura
What is arachnoid latin for ?
spider
NAME
this is latin for spider
arachnoid
What is pia latin for ?
highly vascular
NAME
this is latin for high vascular
pia
THe menginges have (1)btwn each layer
potential spaces that may not be present but can be there
What is the dura mater?
outer layer that is strong bc of elastic fibers
nAME
this is the strong outerlayer of the menginges
dura mater
What is the arachnoid mater?
is middle layer of the meninges that look like spider webs
WHat is the epidural space?
epi=means on top of ...therefore, it is the space btwn the skull and dura mater
NAME
this is the space btwn the skull and the dura mater
epidural space
What is subdural space?
is the space btwn the dura mater and the arachnoid mater that contains CSF
NAME
this is the space btwn the dura mater and the arachnoid mater that contains CSF
subdural space
All of the ventricles communicate through the (1)
cerebral aqueduct
What is the cerebral aqueduct?
is where all of the ventricles communicate
NAME
all of the venctricles communicate through this
cerebral aqueduct
the (1)becomes of the central canal in the spinal cord
central canal
the 4th ventricle becomes the (1)in the spinal cord
central canal
What happens if during development there is a narrowing of the cerebral aqueduct communicate?
the baby gets hydrocepillas
What can cause hydrpcepillias?
when the cerebral aqudect or the other structures that the ventricles communicate to each other become narrowed
What is the circular of Willis?
is the center of vascular structures
NAME
this is the center of the vascular structures of the brain
circular of Willis
iF one artery is blocked branching off from the circle of Willis then(1)
one artery cant get blood to the distal CNS and a stroke of MI occurs
How many venctricles are there?
4
there are (1)ventricles
4
the lateral ventricles are connected to the 3rd ventricle by the (1)
interventricular foramina
What is the interventricular foramina?
connects the lateral ventricles to the 3rd ventricles
NAME
this connects the lateral ventricles to the 3rd ventricle
interventricular foramina
What are (2)projections found int the dura mater?
(1)falx (2)tentorium cerebelli
NAME
this layer of the meninges has two projections that falx and the tentorium cerebellis
dura mater
What is the falx?
a projection off of the dura mater that seperates the cerebral hemispheres
NAME
this is a projection off of the dura mater that separates the cerebral hemispheres
falx
What is the tentorium cerebelli?
is a projection off of the dura mater that separates the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum
What is the differ btwn the falx and the tentorium cerebellis?(2)
(1)falx-is a projection off of the dura mater that seperates the cerebral hemispheres (2)tentorium cerebellis is a projection off of the dura mater that separates the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum
What is the differ btwn the falx and the tentorium cerebellis?(2)
(1)falx-is a projection off of the dura mater that seperates the cerebral hemispheres (2)tentorium cerebellis is a projection off of the dura mater that separates the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum
within the projections in the dura mater are (1)
the dural sinuses
Where are the dural sinuses found?
in the projections of the dura mater
What are the dural sinuses?
return CSF and venous blood to the jugular veins
NAME
these return CSF and venous blood to the juglar veins
dural sinuses
dural sinuses drain into the (1)
jugular veins
STOPED HERE
STOPED HERE
NS comes from (1)
ectoderm
What is ectoderm tissue?
is the tissue that the NS comes from
NAME
this is the tissue that the NS comes from
ectoderm
What are the (3)stages of the development of the NS?
(1)preembroyonic (2)embroynic (3)fetal
When does the preembryonic stage occur?
conception to 2 weeks
NAME
this stage of development lasts from conception to 2 weeks
preembroyonic stage
What is the most important event of the preembroyinic stage?
the implanation of what will be the embyro
NAME
the most important event during this stage is the implanation of waht will be the embyro
preembryonic stage
What are (3)kind of tissue that all forms of life start out w?
(1)embryonic disk (2)ectoderm (3)endoderm
After the embyronic disk, ectoderm, and the enderm form, (1)tissue develops
mesoderm
What is mesoderm?
develops into all types of connective tissue
NAME
this type of tissue develops into all types of connective tissue
mesoderm
What happens during the preembroyinic stage? (6)
(1)the fertilized ovum begins cell division moving down the uterine tube and into the cavity of the utereus (2)a solid sphere of cells called blastocyst form (3)the blastocyst implants into the endometrium of the uterus (4)during this process, the inner cell mass develop into the embroynic disk w two layers-the ectoderm and endoderm (5)the embroynic disk expands (6)later, mesoderm forms in btwn the ectoderm and endoderm
What happens during the preembroyinic stage? (6)
(1)the fertilized ovum begins cell division moving down the uterine tube and into the cavity of the utereus (2)a solid sphere of cells called blastocyst form (3)the blastocyst implants into the endometrium of the uterus (4)during this process, the inner cell mass develop into the embroynic disk w two layers-the ectoderm and endoderm (5)the embroynic disk expands (6)later, mesoderm forms in btwn the ectoderm and endoderm
What happens during the preembroyinic stage? (6)
(1)the fertilized ovum begins cell division moving down the uterine tube and into the cavity of the utereus (2)a solid sphere of cells called blastocyst form (3)the blastocyst implants into the endometrium of the uterus (4)during this process, the inner cell mass develop into the embroynic disk w two layers-the ectoderm and endoderm (5)the embroynic disk expands (6)later, mesoderm forms in btwn the ectoderm and endoderm
What is the blastocyst?
is a sphere of cells that forms during the preembroynic stage
What will happen to the blastocyst later ?(2)
(1)the outer layer will become the fetal contribution to the placenta (2)the inner cell mass will become the embryo
NAME
this is a sphere of cells that forms during the preembroynic stage
blastocyst
NAME
eventually the outer layer of this will become the fetal contribution to the placenta and the inner cell mass will become the embyro
blastocyst
the embryonic disk consists of two layer: (1)and (2)
(1)ectoderm (2)endoderm
What are the two layers of the embroynic disk?(2)
(1)ectoderm (2)endoderm
NAME
this has two layers: ectoderm and endoderm
embryonic disk
(1)forms btwn the ectoderm and endoderm
mesoderm
the central part of the ectoderm will become the (1)
neural plate
the neural plate will invaginate to become the (1)
neural groove
the (1)will invaginate to become the neural groove
neural plate
(1)will eventually become the vertebrae and muscles of the spine
somite
What happens to the somites during development?
eventually they will become the veretrbrae and muscles of the back
NAME
eventually these will become the vertebrae and muscles of the back
somite
When is the embryonic stage of development?
from the 2nd to the 8th week
NAME
this stage occurs from the 2nd to the 8th week of pregrnacy
embroynic stage
List all of the stages of development of the NS in order
(1)preembroynic= conception to 2 weeks
(2)embroynic stage=2 weeks to 8 weeks
(3)fetal stage= end of the 8th week until birth
When does the fetal stage of development occur?
the end of the 8th week until birth
NAME
this stage of development occurs from end of the 8th week until birth
fetal stage
(1)plays in important role in the closing of the neuropores
folic acid
folic acid plays an important role in the closing of the (1)
neuropores
What happens during the embryonic stage?
the organs are formed
NAME
during this stage of development the organs are formed
embryonic stage
What happens during the fetal stage?
the nervous system develops more fully and myelination occurs
NAME
during this stage, the nervous system develops more fully and myelination occurs
fetal stage
What does the ectoderm become? (3)
(1)sensory organs (2)epidermis (3)NS
The ectoderm becomes the (1),(2),and (3)
(1)sensory organs (2)epidermist (3)NS
NAME
evnetually this type of tissue becomes the sensory organs, epidermis, and NS
ectoderm
What does the mesoderm become?
all connective tissue such as dermis, muscles, skeleton, excretory, and circulatory systems
NAME
this tissue eventually becomes all connective tissues like the dermis, muscles, skeleton, excretory, and circulatory systems
mesoderm
What does the endoderm become?
(1)gut (2)liver (3)pancreas (4)respiratory system
NAME
this eventually becomes the gut, liver, pancreas, and respiratory system
endoderm
NAME
this eventually becomes the gut, liver, pancreas, and respiratory system
endoderm
What are the neuropores?
are the open ends of the neural tube
NAME
these are the open ends of the neural tube
neuropores
If the superior neuropore doesnt close then the child will have (1)
incepahaly
If the (1)happens then the child will have incephalay
the superior neuropore doesnt close
What does incepahaly latin for?
no brain
NAME
this is latin for no brain
incephalay
The most common condition of the defects in the neural tubes is when the (1)
inferior neuropore doesnt close
If the inferior neuropore does not close then the child will have (1)
spinia bifidia
If the (1)happens then the child will have spinia bifidia
inferior neurpore does not close
What does the fetal stage start w?(3)
(1)forebrain (2)midbrain (3)hindbrain
NAME
this stage starts w the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain
fetal stage
What is the neural plate?
is a longitudinal thickening of ectoderm that is the start of the NS
NAME
this is a longitudinal thickening of the ectoderm that is the start of the NS
neural plate
What is neural groove?
refers to the folded edges of the neural plate that grow toward each to evnetually touch and form the neural tube
The edges of the neural plate fold to form the (1)
neural groove
the edges of the (1)fold to form the neural groove
neural plate
NAME
this refers to the folded edges of the neural plate that grow toward each to evnetually touch and form the neural tube
neural groove
When the folds of the neural groove eventually touch, they become the (1)
neural tube
When the (1),they become the neural tube
folds of the neural groove touch
What are neuropores?
are openings in the neural tube
NAME
these are openings in the neural tube
neuropores
Cells adjacent to the neural tube seperate from the tube and the remaining ectoderm to form the (1)
neural crest
What is the neural crest?
refers to cells adjacent to the neural tube from the tube and the remaining ectoderm seperate and form the neural crest
What happens when the neural crest develops?
the neural crest and neural tube move inside the embryo
When the (1)the neural crest and the neural tube move inside the embryo
neural tube develops
Describe the neural tube foramation?(8)
(1)the edges of the neural plate fold to create the neural groove and the folds grow towards each other (2)when the folds touch, the neural tube is formed (3)the neural tube closes in cervical region and the neural groove closes (4)the cells adjacent to the neural tube seprate from the tube and the remaining ectoderm forms the neural crest (5)once the neural crest develops, the neural tube and the neural crest move inside the embyro (6)the overlying ectoderm closes over the tube and the neural crest (7)the superior and inferior neuropore close (8)the tube differentiates into two layers: marginal and mantle layer
Describe the neural tube foramation?(8)
(1)the edges of the neural plate fold to create the neural groove and the folds grow towards each other (2)when the folds touch, the neural tube is formed (3)the neural tube closes in cervical region and the neural groove closes (4)the cells adjacent to the neural tube seprate from the tube and the remaining ectoderm forms the neural crest (5)once the neural crest develops, the neural tube and the neural crest move inside the embyro (6)the overlying ectoderm closes over the tube and the neural crest (7)the superior and inferior neuropore close (8)the tube differentiates into two layers: marginal and mantle layer
Describe the neural tube foramation?(8)
(1)the edges of the neural plate fold to create the neural groove and the folds grow towards each other (2)when the folds touch, the neural tube is formed (3)the neural tube closes in cervical region and the neural groove closes (4)the cells adjacent to the neural tube seprate from the tube and the remaining ectoderm forms the neural crest (5)once the neural crest develops, the neural tube and the neural crest move inside the embyro (6)the overlying ectoderm closes over the tube and the neural crest (7)the superior and inferior neuropore close (8)the tube differentiates into two layers: marginal and mantle layer
When does neural tube formation occur?
btwn day 18 t0 26
NAME
this occurs tbwn day 18 and 26
neural tube formation
When does neural tube formation occur?
btwn day 18 t0 26
When do the superior and inferior neuropore close?
(1)superior neuropore close at day 27 (2)inferior neuropore closes at day 30
NAME
this closes at day 30
inferior neuropore
NAME
this closes at day 27
superior neuropore
WHen does the inferior neuropore close?
30
When does the superior neuropore close?
27
the neural tube differeniates into the (1)and (2)layer
marginal and mantle
the (1) differeniates into the marginal and mantle layers
neural tube
What is the mantle layer of the neural tube?
contains cell bodies and will become gray matter
NAME
this contains cell bodies and will become gray matter
mantle layer
What is the marginal layer of the neural tube?
is the outer wall that contains processes of cells whose bodies are located in the mantle layer and will become white matter
NAME
this is part of the outer wall that contains processes of cells whose bodies are located in the mantle and will become white matter
marginal layer of the neural tube
the (1)and (2)develop entirely from the neural tube
(1)brain (2)spinal cord
the brain and the spinal cord develop entirely from the (1)
neural tube
As the neural tube closes, the adjacent mesoderm divides into spherical cell clusters called (1)
somites
What are somites?
refers to spherical cell clustors that form from the adjacent mesoderm after the neural tube closes
NAME
this refers to spherical cell clustors that form from the adjacent mesoderm after the neural tube closes
somites
in the mature spinal cord, the gray matter derived from the (1)is called the dorsal horn
association plate
in the mature spinal cord, the gray matter derived from the assocation plate is called the (1)
dorsal horn
What are the parts of the somites?(3)
(1)sclerotomes (2)myotomes (3)dermatomes
NAME
some parts of this include sclerotomes, myotomes, and dermatomes
somites
What are the sclerotomes?
are part of the somites that becomes the vertebrae and the skull
NAME
this is part of the somites that becomes the vertebrae and the skull
sclerotomes
What is a myotome?
is part of the somite that becomes the skeletal muscle
NAME
this is part of the somites that becomes the skeletal muscles
myotome
What is the dermatome?
think d for dermis

is part of the somite that becomes the dermis
NAME
this is part of the somite that becomes the dermis
dermatomte (d for dermis)
What is the difference in how the PNS and the CNS develop?
(1)the brain and spinal and cord develop from the neural tube (2)the PNS w the exception of the motor neuron axons develops from the neural crest
Where does the PNS develop from (other than ectoderm)
w the exception of the motor neuron axons-it develops from the neural crest
NAME
w the exception of the motor neuron axons- this develops from the neural crest
PNS
When the (1)closes, the future brain regions of the neural tube expand:hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain
superior neuropore
When the superior neuropore closes, the furture (1)expand
brain regions
What are the furture brain regions that form after the superior nueorpore closes?(3)
(1)hindbrain (2)forebrain (3)midbrain
hindbrain is also called the (1)
rhombencephalon
(1)is also called the rhombencephalon
hindbrain
the midbrain is also called the (1)
think m for

mesencephalon
mesencephalon is also called the (1)
think m for
midbrain
the forebrain is also called the (1)
prosencephalon
the prosencephalon is also called the (1)
forebrain
the hind brain divides into (1)and (2)
(1)myelenceaphalon (2)metencephalon
the (1)divides into the myelenceapholon and the metencephalon
hindbrain
Draw a chart explaining how the brain develops
see pg 88 table 5-1
Draw a chart explaining how the brain develops
see pg 88 table 5-1
Draw a chart explaining how the brain develops
see pg 88 table 5-1
The forebrain develops into the (1)and (2)d
(1)diencephalon (2)telencephalon
the (1)develops into the diencephalon and the telencephelong
forebrain
What does the metencephalon develop into ?(4)
(1)pons (2)upper medulla (3)cerebellum (4)4th ventricle
NAME
this develops into the pons, upper medulla, cerebellum, and 4th ventricle
metencephalon
What does the midbrain develop into?(2)
midbrain (2)cerebral aqueduct
NAME
this develops into the midbrain and the cerebral aqueduct
midbrain
What does the diencephalon develop into?(3)
(1)thalamus (2)hypothalamus (3)3rd ventricle
nAME
this develops into the thalamus, hypothalamus, and 3rd ventricle
diencephalon
What does the telencephalon develop into?
(1)cerebral hemispheres including the basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, and lateral ventricles
NAME
this develops into the cerebral hemispheres including the basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, and the lateral ventricles
telencephalon
T or F
lateral areas of the hemisphere do not grow as much as other areas
true
What happens after the brain' regions develop?(2)
(1)bc the lateral hemisphers do not grow as much, the cortex becomes covered by other regions. this covered region is called insula forms and lateral sulcus form (2)the surfaces of the cerebral and cerebrelluar hemispheres begin to fold creating sulci grooves and gyri
What happens after the brain' regions develop?(2)
(1)bc the lateral hemisphers do not grow as much, the cortex becomes covered by other regions. this covered region is called insula forms and lateral sulcus form (2)the surfaces of the cerebral and cerebrelluar hemispheres begin to fold creating sulci grooves and gyri
What happens after the brain' regions develop?(2)
(1)bc the lateral hemisphers do not grow as much, the cortex becomes covered by other regions. this covered region is called insula forms and lateral sulcus form (2)the surfaces of the cerebral and cerebrelluar hemispheres begin to fold creating sulci grooves and gyri
What is the insula?
refers to the region of the cortex that becomes covered by other regions bc it does not grow as much
NAME
this refers to the region of the cortex that becomes covered by other regions bc it does not grow as much
insula
What is the sulci?
are grooves into the surface of the brain
NAME
these are grooves into the surface of the brain
sulci
What are gyri?
are elevations on the surface of the brain
NAME
these are elevations on the surface of the brain
gyri
What is the growth cone?
is a foward end of the process that expands from a neuron to sample the evironment
NAME
this is a foward end of the process that expands from a neuron to sample the evironment
growth cone
T or F
in early development, many neurons that develop do not surivive
true
(1)claims many as half of the neurons formed during development
neuron death
development is partially dependent on (1)
activity
development is partially dependent on (1)
activity
Why is development partialyl dependent on activity?
bc many neurons die
What are (2)processes that scuplt the NS?
(1)neuronal death (2)axon retraction
T or F
motor neurons are not competely myelinated until 2 years old
true
motor neurons are not competely myelinated until (1)old
2 yrs
WHen is NS damage deceted in children?
not until the system that is damaged would normally be functional
When is the CN most suscpetible to maliformations?
day 14 to week 20
What is anencephaly?
is disease in which the formation of the brain stem w/out the cerebral and cerebellar hemisphers occured bc the superior neuropore did not close
NAME
this is disease in which the formation of the brain stem w/out the cerebral and cerebellar hemisphers occured bc the superior neuropore did not close
anencephaly
What is the arnold=chiari malformation?
is a developmental deformity of the hindbrain
NAME
this is a developmental deformity of the hindbrain
Arnold-chiari malformation
What the differ types of Arnol-chiari malformation?
type I and II
What is Arnold-Chiari type I?
is not assocated w defects of the lower neural tube and consists of herniation of the cerebrelluar tonisil through the foramen magnum into the vertbral canal
NAME
this is the is not assocated w defects of the lower neural tube and consists of herniation of the cerebrelluar tonisil through the foramen magnum into the vertbral canal
arnold-Chiari type I
What is the differ btwn type I and II Arnold-Chiari malformation?
(1)type I-is not assocated w defects of the lower neural tube and consists of herniation of the cerebrelluar tonisil through the foramen magnum into the vertbral canal (2)type II-signs are present infancy and consists of malformation of the brain stem and cerebellum leading to the extension of the medulla and cerebellum through the foramen magnum
What is the differ btwn type I and II Arnold-Chiari malformation?
(1)type I-is not assocated w defects of the lower neural tube and consists of herniation of the cerebrelluar tonisil through the foramen magnum into the vertbral canal (2)type II-signs are present infancy and consists of malformation of the brain stem and cerebellum leading to the extension of the medulla and cerebellum through the foramen magnum
What is type II Arnold-Chiari malformation?
type II-signs are present infancy and consists of malformation of the brain stem and cerebellum leading to the extension of the medulla and cerebellum through the foramen magnum
NAME
signs are present infancy and consists of malformation of the brain stem and cerebellum leading to the extension of the medulla and cerebellum through the foramen magnum
type II arnold-chiari malformation
What are the (4)differ types of spinia bifidia?
(1)occulta (2)meinogocele (3)meningomyelocele (4)myeloschis
NAME
there are three types of this: occulta, meinogocele, meingmoyelocele, and myeloschis
spinia bifidia
What are the differ parts of the diencepahlon?(4)
(1)thalamus (2)hypothalamus (3)epithalamus (4)subthalamus
NAME
this has 4 parts: thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, and subthalamus
diencephalon
What is spinia bifida occulta?(2)
is when the nueral arch fails to close and the spinous process is not formed (2)there is usally a tuft of hair over the area
NAME
people w this type of spinia bifidia have an incomplete arch fails to close and the spinous process is not formed. There is usally a tuft of hair over the area
spinia bifidia occulta
What is the spinia bifidia meinogocele ?
(1)is when there is a sac in which the menginges through the bony defict
NAME
this is a when there is a sac in which the menginges through the bony defict
spinia bifidia meinogocele
What is spinia bifidia meningomyelocele ?
is when there is a sac in which the spinal cord and the menginges through the bony defict
NAME
this is when there is a sac in which the spinal cord and the mengines through the bony defict
spinia bifidia meningomyelocele
What is the spinia bifidia myeloschis?
is the most severe form of spinia bifidia in which the spinal cord is malformed and the spinal cord is open to the surface of the body
NAME
this is the most severe form of spinia bifidia in which the spinal cord is malformed and the spinal cord is open to the surface of the body
spinia bifidia myeloschis
Explain mental retardation
half of the mentally retarded where shown to have have defects in the dendrties and dendritic spines--which the are the prefered sites of synapse
NAME
nearly half of the people w this neural tube defect have defects in their dendrites and dendritic spines--which are the prefered sites of synapse
mental retardation
What does CP stand for?
cerebral Palsy
What is CP?
is a movement and postural disorder caused by permanent, nonprogressive damage of the developing brain
NAME
this is a movement and postural disorder caused by permanent nonprogressive damage of the developing brain
CP
What are the most common types of CP?(4)
(1)spastic (2)athetoid (3)ataxic (4)mixed
NAME
the most common types of this include spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed
CP
What is spastic CP?
is when the damaged neurons are adjacent to ventricles--often resulting in toe walking and a scissor gait
NAME
people w this type of CP have damaged neurons adjacent to ventricles--often resulting in toe walking and a scissor gait
spastic CP
What is the athetoid CP?
is characterized by slow, writhing movements of the extermeties and/or the trunk
What is the scissor gait?
refers to when one leg swings in front of the other instead of striaght foward producing a criss cross motion of the legs during walking
NAME
this refers to when the leg swings in front of the other instead of the other instead of striaght foward producing a criss cross motion of the legs during walking
scissor gait
NAME
this is characterized by slow, writhing movements of the extermeties and/or the trunk
athetoid CP
In athetoid CP, which neuron is affected?
the neuronal damage in the basal ganglia
NAME
people w this type of CP, the neuornal damage is in the basal ganglia
athetoid CP
What is ataxic CP?
consists of incoordination, weakness, and shaking during voluntary movement
NAME
this consists of incoordination, weakness, and shaking during voluntary movements
ataxtic CP
What is the differ btwn spastic, atheoid, ataxic, and mixed CP?
(1)spasict-muscles shortening often results in toe walking and a scissor gait (2)athetoid-is characterized by slow, writhing movements of the exteremities and/or the trunk (3)ataxic=consists of incoordination, weakness, and shaking during voluntary movements (4)mixed-invovles more than one type of abrnormal movements coexist in a person
What is mixed CP?
this involves more than one type of abnormal movements coexist in a person
NAME
this involves more than one type of abnormal movements coexists in a person
mixed CP
What was originally believed to cause CP?
from difficulties during birth
What are some causes of CP?(8)
(1_include abnormal development in utero (2)metabolic-abnormalities(3) disorders of the immune system (4)coagulation disorders(5) infections (6) trauma(7) and(8) hypoxia
NAME
some causes of this include abnormal development in utero, metabolic-abnormalities, disorders of the immune system, coagulation disorders, infections, trauma, and hypoaxia
CP
Where is the spinal cord located?
is continous w the medulla to the L1-2 intervertebral space
NAME
this is continous w the medulla to the L1-L2 intervertebral space
spinal cord
(1)are required for axons to exit the lumbosacaral part of the spinal cord
long roots
long roots are required for axons to exit the (1)part of the spinal cord
lumbosacral
Why are long roots required for axons to exit the lumbosacral portion of the spinal cord?
bc the spinal cord is not present below the L1-L2 region
The spinal cord is not present below the (1)region
L1-L2
The (1)is not present below the L1-L2 region
spinal Cord
where does the spinal cord end?
l1-l2
What are rootlets?
refers to small groups of axons that are sending info to the periphery system leave the cord
NAME
these refer to small groups of axons that are sending info to the PNS leave the cord
rootlets
What are (2)kinds of rootlets?
(1)ventral (2)dorsal
What is the ventral root?
contains motor axons
NAME
this contains motor axons
ventral
What is the dorsal root?
contains sensory axons
NAME
this contains sensory axons
dorsal rootlets
What is the differ btwn dorsal and ventral rootlets?
(1)dorsal=contains sensory axons (2)ventral =contains motor axons
What is the spinal nerve?
is a mixed nerve that contains both sensory and motor axons
NAME
this is a mixed nerve that contains both sensory and motor axons
spinal nerve
the ventral and dorsal root converge to form the (1)
spinal nerve
the (1)and (2)converge to form the spinal nerve
(1)ventral (2)dorsal
What is the dorsal root ganglion?
contains cell bodies of sensory neurons
NAME
this contains cell bodies of sensory neurons
dorsal roots ganglion
Each dorsal root has a (1)
dorsal root ganglion
Each segment of the cord is connected to a specific region of the body by a (1)
axons traveling through a pair of spinal nerve
Each segment of the (1)is connected to a specfic region of the body by a axons traveliing through a pair of SN
cord
Describe the location of the SN (2)
(1)cervical region, SN are found above the corrsponding vertebra except for the 8 SN emerges btwn C7 and T1 (2)in the remainder of cord, spinal nerves lie below the corresponding veretbrae
Describe the location of the SN (2)
(1)cervical region, SN are found above the corrsponding vertebra except for the 8 SN emerges btwn C7 and T1 (2)in the remainder of cord, spinal nerves lie below the corresponding veretbrae
Each segment of the cord is connected to a specific region of the body by a (1)
axons traveling through a pair of spinal nerve
Except for the cervical region, spinal nerve lie (1)
below the corresponding veretbrae
In the cervical region except for SN 8, SN are found (1)
above the corresponding verebrae
In the cervical region except (1), SN are found above the corresponding veretbrae
SN 8
When does the SN split into the dorsal primary rami and ventral primary rami?
when it goes through the intervertebral foramen
the SN splits into the (1)and (2)
dosral primary rami and ventral primary rami
the (1)splits into the dosral primary rami and the ventral primary rami
SN
the SN splits into the (1)and (2)
dosral primary rami and ventral primary rami
the (1)splits into the dosral primary rami and the ventral primary rami
SN
What marks the beginning of the PNS?
when the SN splits into the dorsal and ventral primary rami
NAME
this beginning of this is marked by the spliting of the NS into the dorsal and ventral primary rami
PNS
What marks the end of the spinal region?
the spliting of the SN into dorsal and ventral primary rami
What is the dorsal primary rami?
innervates the paravertebral muscles and adjacent skin and posterior veretbrae
NAME
this innervetes the paravertbral muscles and the adjacent skin and posterior verebrae
dorsal primary rami
What is the ventral primary rami?
innervetes the limbs and anterolateral trunk
NAME
this innervetes the limbs and anterolateral trunk
ventral primary rami
What is the differ btwn the dorsal and ventral primary rami and the muscles they innervate?(2)
(1)dorsal primary rami= innervates the paravertebral muscles and adjacent skin and posteior verebrae (2)ventral primary rami=innervetes the limbs and anterior lateral trunk
What are propriospinal?
are axons that begin and end w/in the spinal cord
NAME
these are axons that begin and end w/in the spinal cord
propriospinal
What are the (3)differ parts of white matter?
(1)anterior column (2)lateral column (3)dorsal column
the dorsal and lateral columns of white matter contain (1)
axons of tract cells, transmitting sensory info upward to the brain
NAME
this contains axons of tract cells, transmitting sensory info upward to the brain
dorsal and lateral columns of white matter
the lateral and anterior white matter contains (1)
axons of upper motor neurons
NAME
these contain axons of the upper motor neurons
lateral and anterior white matter
Describe white matter ? (2)
(1)the dorsal and lateral columns of white matter contain axons of tract cells, transmitting sensory info upward to the brain (2)lateral and anterior white matter contains axons of upper motor neurons
Describe white matter ? (2)
(1)the dorsal and lateral columns of white matter contain axons of tract cells, transmitting sensory info upward to the brain (2)lateral and anterior white matter contains axons of upper motor neurons
Describe white matter ? (2)
(1)the dorsal and lateral columns of white matter contain axons of tract cells, transmitting sensory info upward to the brain (2)lateral and anterior white matter contains axons of upper motor neurons
What are upper motor neurons?
convey info to descending neurons from the brain to interneurons and lower motor neurons
NAME
these convey info to descending neurons from the brain to interneurons and lower motor neurons
upper motor neurons
the central part of the cord is marked by a (1)
H shaped pattern of gray matter
the (1)of the cord is marked by H shaped pattern of gray matter
central part
What is the central part of the spinal cord like?
it is marked by a distinctive H-shaped pattern of gray matter
What are the lateral sections of the gray matter like? (3)
they are divided up into there regions: (1)dorsal horn (2)lateral horn (3)ventral horn
NAME
this is divided up into there region:dorsal, lateral, and ventral horn
the lateral sections of gray matter
What is the dorsal horn?
processes sensory info
NAME
this part of the spinal cord processes autonomic info
lateral horn
What is the lateral horn ?
it part of the spinal cord that processes autonomic info
NAME
this is part of the spinal cord that processes sensory info
dorsal horn
What is the ventral horn?
part of the spinal cord that proceses motor info
NAME
this is part of the spinal cord that proceses motor info
ventral horn
What is the differ btwn the dorsal horn, lateral horn, and the ventral horn?(3)
(1)dorsal horn=processes sensory info (2)lateral horn=processes autonomic info (3)ventral horn=processes motor information
What are Rexed's laminae?
are 10 histologic and functionally specific regions in the spinal cord gray matter
NAME
these are 10 histologic and functionally specfic regions in the spinal cord and gray matter
Rexed's laminae
What is gray matter in the spinal cord like?
composed of spinal interneurons
the (1) is composed of spinal interneurons
gray matter in the spinal cord
What are spinal interneurons?
cells w/in their somas in the gray matter
NAME
these are cells w/in their somas in the gray matter
interneurons
What is rexed laminae?
are 10 histologic and functionally specfic regions in the spinal cord of the gray matter
NAME
these are 10 histologic and functionally specfic regions in the spinal cord of the gray matter
rexed laminae
segements of the spinal cord exchange info w other spinal cord segments, w the help of the (1)and the (2)
peripheral nerves and the brain
Natural stimuli simultaneously (1)
excite a variety of receptor types
(1)stimutaneously exicte a variety of receptor types
natural stimuli
give an ex of how natural stimuli simultaneously exicte a variety of receptor types?
flexing a joint stimulates muscle spindles, Golgi tendons, joint strech, and pressure recpetors and cutaneous strech and pressure receptors
afferent and descending info converges on the (1)
same spinal interneurons
(1)and (2)converges on the same spinal interneurons
afferent and descending info
(1)and (2)act together to produce goal directed movements
reflexes and voluntary control
reflexes and voluntary control act together to produce (1)
goal directed movement
What produces goal directed movement?
reflexes and voluntary controls
What does the spinal circuitry provide?(3)
(1)modulation of sensory info (2)coordination of movement patterns (3)autonomic regulation
NAME
this provides modulation of sensory info, coordination of movement patterns, and autonomic regulation
spinal circuitry
What are internueronal circuts?(2)
coordinate activty in all the muscles when a limb moves
NAME
these integrate the activity from all sources and adjust the output of the lower motor neurons
interneuronal circuts
What determine whether a single aplha motor neuron will fire?
the summation activity of 20,000 to 50,000 synapses
What are internueronal circuts?(2)
integrate the activity from all sources and adjust the output of the lower motor neurons (2) in short they coordinate activty in all the muscles when a limb moves
What are the spinal region reflexes?(4)
(1)phasic stretch reflexes (2)tonic stretch reflexes (3)reciprocal inhibition (4)withdrawl reflexes
NAME
these include phasic stretch reflexes, tonic stretch reflexes, reciprocal inhibition, and withdrawl reflexes
spinal region reflexes
(1)from skin, muscles, and/or joints can elicit a variety of withdrawl reflexes
afferent
afferent info from the skin, muscles, and/or joint can elicit a variety of (1)
withdrawal reflexes
During a withdrawl reflex, the response depends on the (1)
site of stimulation
What does the response depend on?
the site of stimulation
What is the local sign?
refers to the specificity of the movement pattern
NAME
this refers to the specificity of the movement pattern
local sign
What is the crossed extension reflex?
refers to how another interneuoronal circut adjusts the muscle activity in the stance limb to prevent falling
NAME
this refers to how another interneuronal circut adjusts the muscle activity in the stance limb to prevent falling
crossed extension reflex
Give an example of a withdrawl and crossed extension reflex(2)
a person steps on tac. afferent fibers relay info to the brain and then motor fiber to the muscles in the feet to remove your foot from the tac (2)the crossed extension reflex= refers to how the interneuronal ciruct quickly adjusts the muscle activity in the stance limb to prevent falling
What are (3)things that the inhibitory interneurons provide?
(1)reciprocal inhibition (2)recurrent inhibition (3)non-reciprocal inhibition
NAME
this provides the following things: reciprocal, recurrent, and non-reciprocal inhibition
inhibitory interneurons
What are renshaw cells?
interneurons that produce recurrent inhibition
NAME
these interneurons produce recurrent inhibition
Renshaw cells
What stimulates the Renshaw cells?
alpha motor neurons
(1)are stimulated by alpha motor neurons
Renshaw cells
What is the reciprocal inhibition?
decreases the antagonist opposition to the action of agonist muscles
NAME
this decreases the antagonist opposition to the action of agonist muscles
reicprocal inhibition
What is recurrent inhibition?
focuses motor activity
NAME
this focuses motor activity
recurrent inhibition
What is nonrecepiprocal inhibition?
sculpts the motor output of large groups of muscles
NAME
this sculpts the motor output of large groups of muscles
nonreciprocal inhibition
What is the differ btwn reciprocal, recurrent, and non-reciprocal inhibition? (3)
(1)reciprocal inhibition=decreases antagonist opposition to the action of agonist muscles (2)recurrent inhibition=focuses motor activity (3)nonreciprocal inhibition=sculpts the motor output of large groups of muscles
What is the differ btwn reciprocal, recurrent, and non-reciprocal inhibition? (3)
(1)reciprocal inhibition=decreases antagonist opposition to the action of agonist muscles (2)recurrent inhibition=focuses motor activity (3)nonreciprocal inhibition=sculpts the motor output of large groups of muscles
the sacral spinal cord contains centers for the control of (1)
urination, bowel function, and sexual function
NAME
this contains centers for the control of urination, bowel function, and sexual function
sacral spinal
What does the sacral spinal cord contain? (3)
centers for urination (2)bowel function (3)sexual function
When the bladder is empty, the (1)inhibit contraction of the bladder
sympathetic efferents
when the bladder empty, the sympathetic efferents (1)
inhibit contraction of the bladder
When the bladder is full, (1)stimulate the bladder wall contraction and open the internal sphincter and somatic efferents open the external sphincter
parasympathetic impulses
when the bladder the is full, parasympathetic impulses stimulate the (1)
bladder wall contraction and open the internal sphincter and somatic efferents open the external sphincter
Explain how the bladder works (4)
(1)when the bladder is empty, the sympathetic efferents inhibit the contraction of the internal sphincter (2)When the bladder fills, stretching of the bladder wall is sensed by propripceters transmits impulses to the reflex center in the sacral cord and efferent impulses initiate voiding (3)parasympathetic impulses stimulate bladder wall contraction and open the internal sphincter (4)somatic efferents open the extenral sphincter
Explain how the bladder works (4)
(1)when the bladder is empty, the sympathetic efferents inhibit the contraction of the internal sphincter (2)When the bladder fills, stretching of the bladder wall is sensed by propripceters transmits impulses to the reflex center in the sacral cord and efferent impulses initiate voiding (3)parasympathetic impulses stimulate bladder wall contraction and open the internal sphincter (4)somatic efferents open the extenral sphincter
Explain how the bladder works (4)
(1)when the bladder is empty, the sympathetic efferents inhibit the contraction of the internal sphincter (2)When the bladder fills, stretching of the bladder wall is sensed by propripceters transmits impulses to the reflex center in the sacral cord and efferent impulses initiate voiding (3)parasympathetic impulses stimulate bladder wall contraction and open the internal sphincter (4)somatic efferents open the extenral sphincter
NAME
this opens the external sphincter of the bladder
somatic efferent fibers
NAME
this stimulates bladder wall contraction and opens the internal sphincter of the bladder
parasympathic impulses
(1)is similar to bladder control
bowel functioning
bowel functioning is similar to (1)
bladder control
What is required for reflexive functions of the bladder, bowel and male sex organs?(3)
intact afferents (2)lumbar and sacral cord segments (3)somatic and autonomic efferents
NAME(3)
These require intact afferents, lumbar and sacral cord segments, and somatic and autonomic efferents
reflexive functions of the bladder, (2)bowel (3)and male sex organs
What is required for voluntary control of reflexive functions of the bladder, bowel, and male sex organs?
intact neural pathways btwn the organ and the cerebral cortex
NAME (3)
this requires intact neural pathways btwn the organ and the cerebral cortex
reflexive functions of the bladder, (2)bowel (3)and male sex organs
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What are syndromes?
are a collection of signs and symptoms that do not indicate a specfic etiology
NAME
these are a collection of signs and symptoms that do not indicate a specfic etiology
syndromes
Give some examples of spinal region syndromes?(5)
(1)anterior cord syndrome (2)central cord syndrome (3)Brown-Sequard syndrome (4)Cauda equine syndrome (5)tehered cord syndrome
What is the anterior cord syndrome?
interferes w pain and temperature sensation and w motor control
NAME
this syndrome interferes w pain and temperature sensation and w motor control
anterior cord syndrome
What is the central cord syndrome?(3)
usally occurs at the cerivcal region (2)if the lesion is small, loss of pain and temperature info occurs at the level of the lesion (3)larger lesions impair upper limb motor function
NAME
this syndrome usally occurs in the cervical region. If the lesion is small, loss of pain and temperature info occurs at the level of the lesion. Larger lesions impair upper limb motor function
central cord syndrome
What is Brown-Sequard syndrome?(4)
(1)results from a hemisection of the cord (2)includes losses of lower motor neurons and all sensations (3)bewlow the level of the lesion, voluntary motor control, conscious propricoception and discriminitative touch are lost ipsilaterally (4)temperature sensation are lost contralaterally
What is cuada equina syndrome?
indicates the damage to the lumbar and or sacral spinal roots causing sensory impairment and flaccid paralysis of lower limb muscles, bladder, and bowels
NAME
this syndrome indicates damage to the lumbar or sacral spinal roots causing sensory impairments and flaccid paralysis of lower limb muscles, bladder, and bowels
cauda equina syndrome
What is tethered cord syndrome? (20
refers to how during development, the veretbral column grows longer than the spinal cord. (2)sometimes the spinal cord becomes attached to the surrounding structures or abnormal development can lead to tethering of the spinal cord
NAME
this syndrome occurs ow during development, the veretbral column grows longer than the spinal cord. (2)sometimes the spinal cord becomes attached to the surrounding structures or abnormal development can lead to tethering of the spinal cor
tethered cord syndrome
What are some usally causes of traumatic spinal cord injuries? (4)
(1)motor vehicle accidents (2)sports injuries (3)falls (4)pentrating wounds
T or F
motor vechilce accidents, sports injuries, and falls tend to sever the cord
false
What happens immediately after a tramuatic spinal cord injury?
cord functions below the lesion are depressed or lost
What is spinal shock?
is when cord functions below the lesion are depressed or lost
NAME
this is when cord functions below the lesion are depressed or lost
spinal shock
What causes spinal cord shock?
is due to the interruption of descending tracts that supply tonic facilation to the spinal cord neurons
NAME
this is due to the interruption of descending tracts that supply tonic faclation to the spinal cord neurons
spinal shock
What are (4)things that are lost or impaired during spinal cord shock?
(1)somatic reflexes including strech reflexes, withdrawl reflexes, and crossed extension reflexes are lost (2)autonomic reflexes including smooth muscles ton and reflexive emptying of the bladder and bowels are lost or impaired (3)autonomic regulation of blood pressure is impaired resulting in hypertension (4)control of sweating and piloerection is lost
What are (4)things that are lost or impaired during spinal cord shock?
(1)somatic reflexes including strech reflexes, withdrawl reflexes, and crossed extension reflexes are lost (2)autonomic reflexes including smooth muscles ton and reflexive emptying of the bladder and bowels are lost or impaired (3)autonomic regulation of blood pressure is impaired resulting in hypertension (4)control of sweating and piloerection is lost
What are (4)things that are lost or impaired during spinal cord shock?
(1)somatic reflexes including strech reflexes, withdrawl reflexes, and crossed extension reflexes are lost (2)autonomic reflexes including smooth muscles ton and reflexive emptying of the bladder and bowels are lost or impaired (3)autonomic regulation of blood pressure is impaired resulting in hypertension (4)control of sweating and piloerection is lost
NAME
during this, somatic reflexes including strech reflexes, withdrawl reflexes, and crossed extension reflexes are lost, autonomic reflexes including the smooth muscles ton and reflexive empyting of the bladder and bowels are lost or impaired, autonomic regulation of blood pressure is impaired resulting in hypertension, and control of piloerection is lost
spinal shock
T or F
several weeks after injury, most people experience some recovery of function in the cord-leading to return of reflex below the lesion
true
several weeks after the injury, most people experience some recovery of function in the cord--leading to (1)
the return of reflex belwo the lesion
damage to the (1)cord results in quadriplegia
cervical
damage to the cervical cord results in (1)
quadriplegia
quadriplegia is also called (1)
tetraplegia
(1)is also called the tetraplegia
quadriplegia
People with lesions (1)cannot breathe independently
above the C4
People w lesions above the C4 region (1)
cannot breathe independently
What is the phrenic nerve?
innervates the diaphragm
NAME
this muscle innervetes the diaphrgam
phrenic nerve
NAME
this results from damage to the cord below the cervical level
paraplegia
Paraplegia results from damage to the cord (1)
below the cervical level
Draw a chart o the CN
see pg 10
Draw a chart o the CN
see pg 10

hint=o's are first grouped together and T=s 2nd grouped together
Draw a chart o the CN
see pg 10
Draw a chart o the CN
see pg 10
Draw a chart o the CN
see pg 10
CN I is also called the (1)
olfactory nerve
(1)is also called the olfactory nerve
CN I
CN II is also called the (1)
optic nerve
(1)is also called the optic nerve
CN II
CN III is also called the (1)
oculomotor nerve
(1)is also called the oculomotor nerve
CN III
CN IV is the (1)
trochlear nerve
(1)is the trochlear nerve
CN IV
CN V is also called the (1)
trigeminal nerve
(1)is also called the trigeminal nerve
CN V
What is the function of CN I?
smell
NAME
this nerve function is smell
CN I
What is the function of CN II?
vision
NAME
this CN function is vision
CN II
What is the function of CN III?(3)
movees eyes up, down medially (2)raises upper eyelid (3)constricts pupil
NAME
this CN moves eyes up, down, and medially, raises upper eyelid, and constricts pupil, and adjusts the shape of the lens of the eye
CN III
What are the functions of the CN IV? (2)
moves eye medially and down
NAME
this CN moves the eye medially and down
CN IV
What is the function of the CN V?
facial sensation, (2)chewing, (3)sensation from tempromandibular joint
NAME
this CN functions include facial sensation, chewing, and sensation from tempromandibular joint
CN V
What is the function of CN VI?
abducts the eye
NAME
this CN functions in abduction of the eye
CN VI
What is the function of the CN VII? (5)
facial expression (2)closes eyes (3)tears (4)salivation (5)taste
NAME
this CN functions in facial expression, closes the eyes, tears, salivation, and taste
CN VII
What is the function of CN VIII?(2)
sensation of the head postion relative to gravity and head movement (2)haering
NAME
this CN functions include sensation of the head position relative to gravity and head movement and hearing
CN VIII
What is the function of CN IX?
(1)swallowing (2)salivation (3)taste
NAME
the CN function's include swallowing, salivation ,and taste
CN IX
What is the function of the CN X?(4)
regulates viscera (2)swallowing (3)speech (4)taste
NAME
this CN's function include reulations of viscera, swallowing, speech, and taste
CN X
What are the functions of CN XI?
elevates shoulder and turns head
nAME
this CN elevates shoulder and turns head
CX XI
What is the function of CN XII?
moves tongue
NAME
this CN moves the tongue
CN XII
CN VI is also called (1)
abducens
(1)is the abducens nerve
CN VI
CN VII is also called (1)
facial nerve
(1)is also called the facial nerve
CN VII
CN VIII is also called (1)
vestibulocochlear
(1)is also called vestibulocochlear nerve
CN VIII
CN IX is also called the (1)
glossopharyngeal nerve
(1)is also called the glossopharyngeal nerve
CN IX
CN X is the (1)
vagus nerve
(1)is also called the vagus nerve
CN X
CN XI is also called the (1)
accessory nerve
(1)is also called the accessory nerve
CN XI
CN XII is also called the (1)
hypoglossal nerve
(1) is also called the hypoglossal nerve
CN XII
STOPED HERE
STOPED HERE
CN exchange info btwn the (1)and (2)
(1)periphery and the brain
What muscles do the CN innervate?
the structures of the head and neck
NAME
these innervate the structures of the head and neck
CN
CN can have (1)functions
sensory, motor and autonomic
NAME
these nerves can have sensory, motor and autonomic functions
CN
CN fibers that innervate the muscles of the head and neck are (1)
lowor motor neurons
CN fibers that innervate the muscles of the (1)are lower motor neurons
head and neck
What are (3)functions of the CN?
(1)they supply motor innervation to muscles of the face, eyes, tongue, jaw, and the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius. (2)they transmit somatosensory info from the skin and muscles of the face and the temproromandibular joint and speacil sensory info (3)they provide parasympathetic regulation of the heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, and digestion
What are (3)functions of the CN?
(1)they supply motor innervation to muscles of the face, eyes, tongue, jaw, and the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius. (2)they transmit somatosensory info from the skin and muscles of the face and the temproromandibular joint and speacil sensory info (3)they provide parasympathetic regulation of the heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, and digestion
All CN connections to the brain are visible on the inferior brain except the (1)
CN IV
All of the CN connections to the brain are visible on the (1)except the CN IV
inferior brain
Where does CN I connect to the brain?
inferior frontal lobe
Where does the CN II connect to the brain?
diencephalon
Where does the CN III connect to the brain?
midbrain (anterior)
Where does the CN IV connect to the brain?
midbrain (posterior)
NAME
this CN emerges from the inferior frontal lobe
CN I
NAME
this CN emerges from the diencephalon
CN II
NAME
this CN emerges from the midbrain (anterior)
CN III
NAME
this CN emerges from the midbrain (posterior)
CN IV
Where does the CN V emerge?