Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which cells in the CNS/PNS help maintain the blood-brain barrier? How would you look for them?
astrocytes, GFAP stain
Which cells in the CNS for multinucleated giant cells in a person infected with HIV?
microglia, the phagocytic cells
1 oligodendrocyte can myelinate ___ axon(s).
up to 30
1 schwann cell can myelinate ___ axon(s).
just 1
Which cells are destroyed in Multiple Sclerosis?
oligodendrocytes - CNS myelination
Acoustic neuroma is an example of a ___, commonly located in the internal acoustic meatus with CN ___ & ___.
schwannoma, CN VII & VIII
Which layer of an entire nerve wraps around blood vessels as well as nerves?
Which sensory corpuscles help a blind person read Braille?
Meissner's - small, encapsulated; light discriminatory tough in palms, soles, fingers, and toes
When you've eaten too much cheese/fries/sausage/ice cream, which sensory corpuscles let you know you're super bloated?
Pacinian - pressure, coarse touch, vibration, tension; found in ligaments, joint capsules, serous membranes, mesenteries
Which sensory corpuscles alert you to a bug crawling up your hair?
Merkel's - in fingertips, hair follicles, hard palate; light crude touch
Which bones of your inner ear make up the bony labyrinth?
- cochlea
- vestibule
- semicircular canals
Which bones of your inner ear make up the membranous labyrinth?
- cochlear duct
- utricle
- saccule
- semicircular canals
What is perilymph rich in?
What is endolymph rich in?
Old people first lose ___ frequency hearing, which is detected at the ___ of the cochlea.
high, base
The utricle and saccule detect ___ acceleration.
The semicircular canals have ampulla that detect ___ acceleration.
Endolymph is made by the:
stria vascularis
What 3 structures comprise the blood-brain barrier?
- astrocyte processes
- basement membrane
- tight junctions between endothelial cells
Which area in the brain is responsible for patients undergoing chemotherapy to feel sick, because there is no blood-brain barrier there?
area postrema
What is special about the posterior pituitary that allows it to release ADH?
no blood-brain barrier there
How do glucose and AAs get into the brain?
carrier-mediated transport
Hypothalamus functions: TAN HATS
- Thirst/water balance
- Adenohypophysis makes releasing hormones
- Neurohypophysis releases oxytocin & ADH
- Hunger
- Autonomic regulation (symp/para/circadian)
- Temperature
- Sex & emotions
Your patient is dehydrated yet says he isn't thirsty. Which hypothalamic nucleus is affected?
Destruction of which hypothalamic nucleus causes you to not feel hungry --> anorexia? Not good idea for a diet, though.
If you lesion this hypothalamic nucleus you will eat a ton and then gain a ton.
Which part of the hypothalamus tells you to seek shade on a hot summer day?
Which part of the hypothalamus tells you to sit close to the fire on a cold winter night?
Jet lag messes with with hypothalamic nucleus?
suprachiasmatic - circadian rhythms (thanks, Inna)
Sexual urges and emotions are governed by the ___ nucleus.
septal - destruction of which leads to RAGE
Release of ___ from the ___ nucleus allows for uterine contractions and milk letdown.
oxytocin, paraventricular
Release of ___ from the ___ nucleus tells you to drink water when you're dehydrated.
ADH, supraoptic
The ___ is a relay for ascending sensory information to the ___ of the brain.
thalamus, cortex
Which part of the thalamus allows you to appreciate a beautiful painting?
lateral geniculate nucleus
Which part of the thalamus allows you to enjoy the sound of music?
medial geniculate nucleus
A lesion in this part of the thalamus will make you unable to feel the bug crawling across your cheek.
ventral posterior nucleus, medial part - facial sensation via CN V
Damage this part of the thalamus would mess up a gymnast doing a complicated balance beam routine. If she were to fall badly, she wouldn't feel the pain either.
ventral posterior nucleus, lateral part - body sensation (proprioception, pressure, pain, touch, vibration)
The ventral anterior & lateral thalamic nuclei are responsible for ___ sensation.
The limbic system is responsible for: (5 F's)
- fight
- flight
- feeding
- feeling
- sex
The basal ganglia are responsible for making ___ movements and ___ adjustments.
voluntary, postural
Parkinson's disease sxs are due to dec. Dopamine from the ___ ___, leading to ___ of the indirect pathway.
substantia nigra (pars compacta), disinhibition
The basal ganglia direct pathway ___ movement, the indirect pathway ___ movement.
facilitates, inhibits
Principal motor area =
Principal sensory areas =
3, 1, 2
Premotor area =
Frontal eye fields =
A lesion in this cortical area would impair motor speech.
Broca's, 44 &45
A lesion in this cortical area would make you unable to understand what was being said.
Wernicke's, associative auditory cortex (area 22)
A lesion in this cortical area would make you blind.
Principal visual cortex, area 17
What connects Wernicke's and Broca's?
arcuate fasciculus
Which area of the cortex allows you to hear?
primary auditory (41, 42)
Your patient is brought in by his wife who says her husband got fired from his job because he keeps losing papers and making sexually inappropriate comments at his boss. You suspect a lesion in which part of his brain?
frontal lobe - planning, inhibition, concentration, orientation, language, abstraction, judgement, motor regulation, mood (LACK OF SOCIAL JUDGEMENT is most notable of a lesion here)
A patient presents with sudden motor and sensory deficits of his left foot. Which artery is likely involved?
right anterior cerebral artery - medial surface of brain, leg-foot area
Which artery supplies Broca's, Wernicke's, and the trunk/arm/face areas of the cortex?
middle cerebral artery
A patient present with sudden visual field defects and you suspect he has had an aneurysm rupture. What is the most common artery involved in aneurysms of the circle of Willis?
anterior communicating - connects the 2 anterior cerebral arteries
Lesions or aneurysms of this artery will cause a CN III palsy:
posterior communicating artery
Which arteries are very commonly associated with stroke?
lateral striate - off middle cerebral artery
How many pairs of spinal nerves do we have?
31 - 8, 12, 5, 5, 1
Vertebral disk herniations usually occur between:
L5 - S1
Lumbar punctures should be performed between:
L3 - L5 (cauda equina, level of iliac crests)
CSF is obtained from the ___ space.
Someone with a winged scapula and inability to abduct the arm has damage to which nerve?
Long Thoracic nerve (C5-7) - serratus anterior
A person who has a wrist drop could have damage to which nerves?
1) Posterior cord (which divides into Axillary and Radial)
2) Radial nerve - "the great extensor" provides innervation to brachioradialis, extensors of fingers & wrist, supinator, triceps
A patient presents with "waiter's tip" so you suspect damage at the level of:
upper trunk - C5-6
Your patient complains he can't lift his arm all the way above the head. You know he has a lesion of the ___ nerve.
Axillary (C5-6) - innervates deltoid and Teres minor
A lesion of the ulnar nerve would look like:
claw hand
Decreased mobility of the thumb could be due to a lesion of which nerve?
Median nerve
Someone who can't flex his elbow probably has damage to which nerve?
Musculoskeletal nerve (mostly C5-6)
Your thenar and hypothenar muscles allow your thumb to:
oppose, abduct, flex
A patient who can't taste from the anterior part of his tongue probably has what other deficits?
- facial movement
- lacrimation
- salivation (subL, subM)
- eyelid closing
A patient who has weakness chewing probably has what other deficit?
- facial sensation
Someone who can't constrict his pupils probably has what other problems?
- eyelid opening
- accomodation
- eye movement
How do you test CN XI?
ask patient to shrug and turn their head
Which cranial nerves are responsible for swallowing?
What are the sxs of Cavernous Sinus Syndrome?
- ophthalmoplegia
- loss of sensation of eyes
- loss sensation of mandible
What passes through the cavernous sinus?
- CN V1, V2
- postganglionic sympathetics
- internal carotid artery
Your patient complains of weakness in lowering his jaw. Which muscle and which cranial nerve are responsible for this movement?
LATERAL pterygoid, CN V3
Which muscles close your jaw?
- masseter
- temporalis
- medial pterygoid
All muscles with "glossus" are innervated by CN XII, except:
palatoglossus, by CN X vagus
All muscles with "palat" are innervated by CN X, except:
tensor veli palatini, by CN V2
What is similar about being wide awake and being in REM sleep?
Same EEG waveforms - beta (highest frequency, lowest amplitude)
Your patient complains of sleep walking and night terrors. Helpful drugs target which stage of sleep?
Stage 4 - benzodiazepines & imipramine shorten
How can you tell if someone is in REM sleep?
- erection (if it's a guy)
- no motor tone
* also inc. O2 consumption by brain
Which NT is responsible for REM sleep?
Which NT is responsible for initiating sleep?
Which NT reduces REM sleep?