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209 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
brain
basically the property of the nervous system that gets things done. eating/walking
mind
part of brain function that makes us human, thought, contemplation, intuition
What makes us diffent than lower animals?
sense of self
prject self into futre
abstraction, math
dexterity]
teach and learn lot of info
spirituality
How do we know what brain does?
look at lesions, diseases, animal studies, eeg, pet scans
PET scan
functional imaging related to oxygen/metabolic function
primary motor area
in precentral gyrus in frontal cortex
premotor cortex
plans movement it is very detailed. movements are long term.
Primary sensory
in postcentral gyrus
Motor vs. sensoy function location in cortex
motor is rostral while sensory is posterior
Primary auditory
in termporal cortex. hear speech
higher order auditory cortex
know what is being said
parietal temporal occicptal association cortex
actually know what you see
prefrontal association cortex
motor activities carried into the future. intution, higher order thinking
difference is primary sensory cortical areas from lower order animals to humans
lower ordered animals have a biger primary sensory and motor area. the size of the primary area decreases the higher one goes on the phylogenetic tree bc of the large increae in higher order association areas
what in cortex makes human differ from other animals?
frontal association cortex is huge in us, but it decreasees us one goes down phylogenetic tree
Crebral hemisphere poles
poles are in contact with bone so named for the bone
1.frontal pole in ant. cranial fossa
2.temporal pole in mid cranial fossa
3.occiptal pole rests on tentrorium NOT in post cranial fossa
How is cortex divided?
into sulci and gyri
Very deep sulci
fissure
what divides cortex into right and left halves?
longituinal fissure
what divides brain into the top and bottom halves. It divides frontal/parietal from the temporal lobe
lateral fissure
central sulcus
divides motor from sensory bc it divides frontal and parietal ares
parieto occiptal sulcus
seen on medial surface only is is between parietal and occiptal lobe
Is temporal lobe seen on medial surface?
not really
number of sucli in frontal lobe
3
what divides ant temporal lobe and post occiptal lobe?
preoccipital notch
frontal lobe sulcus
central sulcus
precentral sulcus in fron
superior and inferior frontal
what seperates the three frontal gyri
superior and inferior frontal sulcus
three gyri of frontal lobe
superior frontal gyrus
middle frontal gyrus
inf. frontal gyrus
Subparts of inferior frontal gyrus
divided into subparts bc language occurs here
1. opercular portion
2. triangular portion
3. orbital portion
Where is opercular portion of inferior frontal gyrus?
hidden in insula
Anterior paracentral lobule
in medial part of frontal lobe it is posterior to the precentral sulcus and anterior to the central sulcus
what is directly beneath the superior frontal gyrus?
cingulate sulcus and beneath the sulcus is the cingulate gyrus
what is found wi the anterior paracentral lobule?
motor of lower extremity
what is medial to olfactory sulcus in the frontal cortex
the gyrus rectus
What does parietal lobe contain?
Posterior gyrus (sensory)
and two lobules, the superior and inferior parietal lobule
sulcus beneath olfactory tract
olfactory sulcus medial portion of frontal cortex
what fissures is the parietal lobe between?
the lateral fissure and the cenral fissure
supramarginal gyrus
in inferior parital lobe it is ascening margin and it surrounds the lateral fissure
Where is angular gyrus?
in parietal lobe just anterior and superior to superior temporal sulcus
what is postcentral gyrus continuous with?
post paracentral lobule. they contain somatosensory from lower extremity
What does posterior paracentral lobule surround on lat surface
surrounds central sulcus
what divides posterior paracentral lobule from preunceus gyrus?
marginal branch of hte cingulate sulcus
two gyrus of inferior parietal lobule
supramarginal gyrus and anular gyrus
what is medial bank of precentral gyrus?
anterior para central lobule contains motor of lower extremity
medial bak of post central gyrus
posterior paracentral lobule contains sensory to lower extremity
most ant portion of occipital lobe
preocciptiatl notch it seperates precuneus in parietal lobe from cuneus in occiptal lobe
calcarine sulcus
t shape in occiptal lobe. it seperates cuneus from lingular gyrus. calcarine sulcus in primary visual info
what does linular gyrus contain?
visual association
primary visual cortex
calcarin sulcus
gyrus of temporal lobe
superior middle and inferior temporal gyrus
what seperates middle from inferior temporal gyrus?
inferior temporal sulcus
what seperates superior from mddle temporal gyrus?
superior temporal sulcus
what is superior to superior temporal gyrus?
lateral fissure
transverse temporal gyrus
primary auditory processing and language association center.it is in superior temporal gyrus. it is prminant in LEFT cerebral hemisphere of superior temporal gyrus superior to insula.
bottom of temporal and parital lobe
occiptotemporal area
what stretches from occiptal pole to temporal pole
occipitotemporal gyrus
parahippocampal gyrus
just lateral to uncus. between uncus and collateral sulcus
most posterior gyrus of brain
lingular
where is rhinal sulcus
between uncus and temporal pole
what is collateral sulcus in fron of uncus
is winds around the front of the uncus as rhinal sulcus
what divides occipitotemporal gyrus from parahipposcampal gyrus?
collateral sulcus
Where are opercular cortical areas?
buring in lateral fissure
Descirbe whte matter of cortex
huge bundles of cortical white matte under the gray matter it is connecting areas
Area 4
primary motor cortex
in frontal lobe
precentral gyrus
very distct layer V
area 3,1,2
primary somatosensory area
in temporal lobe
post central gyrus
area 6
premotor cortex
preplanning motor
Area 8
frontal eye fields
on mdial bank of frontal cortex
impt for voluntary gaze
motor cortex so v. prminent V
Area 44
motor behavior for larynx and jaw during speec. base of frontal cortex
Area 45
imprt for generating words. base of frontal cortex. Area 47 goes with area 45
damage to area 45
can vocalize but cannot generate a work bc a pattern generating the word is projected to area 45
area 41
primary auditory cortex
area 17
primary visual cortex
at calcarin suclus
area 18 and 19
18 surrounds area 17 and 19 surrounds area 18. 18 is a higher visual order. levels of recognition go up the further you get away from area 17
fibers of cortical white matter
association fibers go within cortex
Commisural go from one part of cortex to another
Projection fibers leave corex and descend to Basal ganglia or BS
Two types of association fibers
short travel from one gyrus to next (example is precentral to postcentral gyrus)
Long go from one lobe to another
superior longitudinal long associaon bundles
goes from frontal cortex to occiptal cortex when you see things it makes you think about things
inferior longitudinal fasicuis
type of long association bundle. goes from temporal to occiptal lobe
Uncinate fasiculus
type of long association bundle. goes from uncus and insula of frontal pole to termporal pole's amygdala. responsible for behavior and components of olfaction
Arcuate fasiculus
type of long association bundle. bundle that peals from superior longitudinal to conect the opercular frontal with the superior temporal lobe. connects audiotory to speech.
cingulum fasiculus
type of long association bundle. underlies the cingulate gyrus and connects it to the para hippocampus gyrus
types of long associational bundles in cortex
superior longitudinal
inferior longitiudinal
uncinate
arucate
cingulum
describe commissural fibers from cortex
goes from one cortex to the opposite. two types: homologous and heterologous
homologous commissural fibers
go from one area of cortex all the way across the same area on the opposite side
Heterologous commissural fibers
frontal cortex goes to sensory or temporal cortex. This has the greatest number of connections within a cortex
corticofugal fibers from cortex
leave the cortex and go elsewhere. fibers get into the internal capsule through coronal radiata to form the internal capsule. capsule becomes crus cerebri which passes ponds to pyramids to spinal cord.
larges targests for cortical porjections fibers leaving the cortex
baslar pontein n. the second is the basal ganglia
where does the baslar pons project?
in opposite cerebellum
are there any direct coritcal porjections into the cerebellum?
NO
are there any direct projections from the cerebellum to the cerrbal cortexz?
no they all go to thalmus first
cortical efferent pathway
deep layers of cortex throught internal capsule of gray matter to basal ganglia, thalamus, rednucleus and pretectum of midbrain, reticular formation for face movements, basiclar pontine n., inferior olive, SC
where does corticospinal tract arise from
areas 4,3,1,2,6
3 types of cortex based upon layers
1. archiocortex
3 layers
hippocampus
2. paleocortex
part of allocortex
3-5 layers
ofactory system
3. neocortex
90% of cortex
6 layers
Pallium
cloak or mantle of cereral cortical cells
how is cortex arranges
in layers of neurons. kind or weird bc in cortical structures the gray matter is outside and the white matter lies below
how does cortex form?
from inside out with multiple layers
6 layers of cerebral cortex
molecular layer
outer granular cell laye
outer pyramidal
inner granular
inner pyramidal cell layer
plxiform layer
what does middle cerebral a. off internal carotid supply
it goes laterally through lateral fissure and sends branches that go to caudate putament and internal capsule called striate a.
what happens if you block the middle cerebral a.
loose upper extremity and face control on contralateral side
what do ant and middle cerebral a. come off of?
internal carotid
What does ant cerebral a. supply?
medial cortex
what are blood vessels surrounded by?
arachnoid traelllum. Blood vessels are found is sulcus
major cell component of cerebral cortex
pyramidal cells
what do stellate cells use as NT?
glutamate bc excitatory
types of cortical cells
basket cell uses GABA
pryramidal cell use Glutamate
fusiform cell use Glutamate
stellate cell use glutamate
projections celss in cortex
pyramidal and fusiform cells, the rest of the cells in the cortex are interneurons
six layers of neocortex
1.molecular outer
2.exrernal granular
3.external pyramidal
4.inner granular
5.inner pyramidal
6.multiform
Describe layer II in cortex (outer granular)
plays major role in output of cortex along with outer pyramidal cell layer. connects to outer pyramidal cell layer
describe inner granular layer, layer IV, of cortex
has granule cells, somatosensory cortex has a v. developed lay IV.
has thalamic projections to go to primary sensory area. input to sensory area. this is where VPL of thalmus projects to
describe granular cortex
has big laye IV with pyramidal cells in layer III for sensory
whats in agraular cortex
many pyramidal cells in layers III-V for projection
MOTOR
areas 9/10/11/12
prefrontal area
areas 5,7
somoatosensory association area
area 23,24
cingulate area
most important cortical layer
layer 4. input layer of cortenx where thalmus projects.
major output layer of CC
layer5 goes to basal ganglia, pons, SC, and iferior olive
what major layer is in primary receptor area?
layer 4
prominant layers in precentral gyrus
lots of big pyramidal cells. layer III and V are predominat here
Area 22
auditory association center surrounds areas 41 and 42
area 44 and 45
motor speech
language area
where do cortical association and collosal fibers go to?
superficail layers
Where does layer 5 project to?
outside cortex
where does layer3 project to?
outside of cortex or to other side of cortex
what do superfical 3 layers deal with?
connections wi coretx itself
what layers are prominant in association cortex
supragranular layers
what layer is prominant in motor cortex
layer 5
moment to moment changes in cerebral cortex
plasticity
two sites that dopaminergic pathways arise from
1. substantia nigra (pars compacta) projects to corpus striatum
2. Vental Tegmental Ara prjects through septum to Medial Fascicular bundle to septum, amygdala, and to frontal lob by the cingulum
too little dopamin?
too much domapine?
too little parkinsosn
too much schizo
archicortex
oldes has 3 layers limbic hippocampus
paleocortex
intermediate 3-5 layer associated with olfacion
neocortex
new 6 layers 90% of my brain
ant cerebral a.
supplies small amt of cortx along longitudinal fissure and all of ant cortex in midsag section. If stoke here causes a sensoimotor deficit in legs only bc of paracentral lobule
middle cerebral a
supple the ant and lat (frontal and parietal)surface cortex. lesions here will cause a sensoimotor deficit in the head and arms only
post cerebral a
supplies the post and inf cortex (occiptal and bordering parts) and inf temporal cortex. Supples enteire occipital and temporal cortex in midsag. Lesions here effect vision, vestibular sensse, emotion, and memory
fusiform cell
afferent cell in cc. appear to be in the infragranular laye and involved in the corticothalmic output
Noradrenergic pathway in cc
noraderengic pathways arise from locus ceruleus moves rostrally in medain forebrain bundle and supplies many ares of cortex by cingulum from basal forebran
what are noradrenergic projections in cortex important for?
learning and plasticity of the brain
serotonergic pathway in CC
serotoergic fibers arise from Raphe nuclei. The ones going to cortex arise from the midbrain and run in the median forebrain bundle and go lots of places
importance of serotnonin in the CC
plays role is slee/wake cycle and mood.

too littel=depressed
Use of SSRI for depression
Cholinergic pathways
cholinergic pathways arise in nucleus basalis and septal areas and project via cingulum to cortex and via fornix to hippocampus
What cells in pons project to the thalmus?
dorsal tegmental area
What is cholinergic pathways in CC important for?
learnging and memory, involved in dementia
what is most all corticla structure related to
columsn of cells with similar connecetions
What is important fo CC columnsto form?
sensory input during development
representaion of body in groups of neurons in the NS
somatotopy
What happens if you suture two finger togerher ? what does this mean?
receptive fields change to new receptive fields the columns can change from moment to momonet
difference between primary and premotor parts of cortex
premotor is association
What makes your personality and who you are
prefrontal association cortex
parietal temporal occipital association cortex
vision and hearing very important with language
CNS main purpose
movement. all activity in NS must be expressed as movement
where does premotors send info to?
pons and basal ganglia to motor cortex so movement occurs
What is localized in the frontal cortex?
ROSTRAL frontal cortexx is highre order. intuition, imagination future.
fiber bundle ging from the occipital cortex to the frontal cortex
superior longitudinal fascisulus os this fiber bundle givesyou some idea as the relationship of highter cortical functions
prefrontal cortex
program advanced intended movements
premotor cortex
another step down from prefrontal cortex. planning for specific movements needed to support a particular action occurs here. after this goes to pons-cerebellum-primary motor cortex
primarey sensory cortex
sense of touch, temp discrete movement of limbs. It is contralateral
parietal association cortex
behind sensory cortex. sense of who you are.
Lesion in Right parietal cortex
hemineglect. causes a person to completely neglect the left side of their body. they take no ownerdhip of that side. wont bathe it, look it, nothing.
what is lower part of parietal cortex involved in?
speech and language. What you say comes from the right hemi and how you say it comes from the left hemi
what is precentral lobule continuous with?
postcental lobuL?
precentral gyrus and postcentral lobule is continuous iwth postecental gyrus
visual cortex
primary visual is 17
18 and 19 are visual association
temporal lobe and temporal association cortex
limbic functions. feelings. auditory
where does the affective component of emotioni come from?
temporal association cortex and goes to amygdala
auditory recogingiton centrer
in temporal lobe. Music is in right cortex and language is in left.
what is in superior tempoal lobe?
language
brocas area
premotor to speech
where is vision and short term memory?
posterior cerebral cortex
can you talk if damage to broca
yeah but not intelligently bc it is premotor. plan what you say
what supplies areas of cortex concerned with lower extremity?
anterior cerebral a.
what supplies areas of cortex related to face and upper extremity and language and words?
middle cerebral a.
what supplies areas of cortex related to viion, emotion, and memory?
posterior cerebral a.
lesion in middle cerbral a.
increase faxcity(muscle tone) hyper reflexia, gaze parlysis, problem moving eyes in frontal eye field
broca lesion
non fluent aphasia. Cant say something and patient knows they cant say it.
orbital/frontal bilesions
unstatble emothions
bilateral lesion of parhip/hip
no new memories formed this can be cuased by anoxia
are cortical functions symmetrical?
NO WAY
when does laterization occur?
early and is reinforced by growth, development, and experience
most obious example of assymentry in cortex
language. R side is nonverbal language can recognize tone and guesture, this is called procodyy. So lesioin in R side cant understand what others feel.
What side of cortex does handwrinting? drwing?
handwriting on L
drawing on R
Symptoms of right parietal lobe lesion
ignore left field
loss of recognition of space
loss of prosody. they serioously pay no attention to L side. This differs from L parietal lesion bc with L parietal lesion, you cant talk but know what others are saying
What causes lateralized verbal language function?
large plenum on L side for speech recognition
two components of language functin
1. verbal-this is the use and understanding of words spoken or read (this is in L)
2. nonverbal- this is affective part of speech. expressioin, emotion of speech. Prosody. This is in R
EEG during sleep
very active bc cortical activigy during sleep is not translated into action bc pons uncouples the circuits
Epilepsy
huge excitatory discharge. it isthe loss of inhibitory circuits
forgetting
active process of brain bc brain surpresses stuff
visual system
you have temporal visual fields and retinal visual fields. the nasal retinal fields up temporal visula field. If i look at dot, everyghing on my left goes to R cortex and everythng on my R goes to the L cortex. So look at dot to stimulate R and L brains to see what is going on with each
Macular field
look at represention of the calcarine sulcus. the maula have a v. large disproportionate representaion. So with sproke, it is ususally macular sparing so you get tunnel vision
Where is upper visual field
in lower bank of calcarine
Where is lower visual fieldd?
in upper bank of calcarine
what side of cortex controls L hand? Rhand?
R cortex controls L hand
L cortex controls R hand
SIde of brain to process shapes?
Right
SIde of brain to process workds?
Left
lesion in L cortex. PU ball. What do you see?
nothing bec the word ball is in the L cortex
facial chimera experiemtn
split brain. Look at the face. man on R, girl on L. look at center. if verbal response, pt sees man because meens R brain problem. If nonverbal response, pt sees woman means L brain problem.
What functioni is most broadly distributed among cortex?
LANGUAGE
angular gyrus
creates speech
reading
language cortex
start in auditory cortex hear
wenickes area integrates it into language, angular gyrus allows us to create speech and read, and motore cortex actulay allows us to say it
How does language flow/
FROM SUPERIOR TEMPORAAL GYRUS TO INFERIOR FRONTAL GYRUS VIA ARCUATE BUNDLE
lesion in arcuate bundle
you can read and understand language but you cannot make sense and you dont know it called fluent aphaga.
Lesion in Wernikes
werknikes aphasia. pt does not understand and they dont know they dont understand. person can form words but they are craxy words. problem in parietal cortex
conduction aphagia
arcuate bundle in interrupted. hear words andunderstand and can generate a response but response makes not sense. Pt knows there is a problem
How does problem in Wernickes and Brocas differ?
Wernickes is a global disruption of language bc of lesion on parietal cortex. Brocas is disruption of expressive componoent of language bc of lesion in frontal cortex
Apraxia
loss of task peformance wo loss of movement. Cant write words but can still use hands
Agnosia
loss of sense. significance is lost.
Rective Apahsia
due to Wernickes problem cant understand spoken language but can hear. pt use disordered syntax. no insight to problem
Expressive Aphasia
in brocas. halmark is ability to undertand written and verbal but unable to gerate right words. Pt is aware of problem
Gesalt
brain takes in whole and does not need parts to complete picture
How are memories moved from transient to permanent place/
association cortex to hippocampus and back by papez circuit
How do you lose short term mem?
Frontal lobe slsion