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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
exteroceptive sensation
primary sensation that informs the brain of the external environment
proprioceptive sensation
primary sensation that informs the brain of position and movement of the body, limbs, and digits
interoceptive sensation
primary sensation that informs the brain of visceral organ sensations (distended bladder, duodenal ulcer pain)
cortical sensation
consists of several simultaneous basic sensations and their integration (recognition of objects by touch and weight)
an uncomfortable hypersensitivity to non-noxious stimuli
an abnormal, spontaneous sensation of tingling, or "pins and needles"
referred pain
perceived along a dermatome having sensory afferents from the same dorsal root as the diseased internal organ
sensation conveyed by posterior (dorsal) column
position sense, vibration sense, two-point discrimination
sensation conveyed by spinothalamic tract
pain or pinprick sensation, temperature sensation
primary deficit resulting in decreased of lost sensation in the territory of one peripheral nerve
primary deficit resulting in decreased or lost sensation in several peripheral nerves, "stocking and glove" pattern of deficit
intramedullary lesion
occur w/in spinal cord, suspended or vestlike sensory loss and sacral dermatomal sparing
extramedullary lesion
compress the spinal cord from the outside, initial sensory loss in sacral segments, progressing up "to a level" because of lamination of spinothalamic tract
tactile recognition of common objects with eyes closed (penny, paper clip), deficit=astereognosis
identification of numbers traced on the palm with eyes closed, deficit=agraphesthesia or graphanestesia
two point discrimination
tactile recognition of two sharp points separated by:
3-4mm apart at fingertip
20-30mm apart at dorsal hand
greater distances over limbs and trunk
quick, replicable motor response or movement provoked by a stimulus
muscle stretch reflex
stretching of neuromuscular spindles activates Ia fibers (afferent arc), then alpha motor neurons depolarize and muscle fibers contract (efferent arc)
Jendrassik's maneuver
creates relatively increased gamma activity, which shortens intrafusal fibers and lengthens (stretches) the spindle, thus augmenting MSR
occurs when an upper motor neuron lesion releases lower motor neurons from supraspinal inhibition
associated with a lower motor neuron lesion affecting efferent arc of MSR, or dorsal root or sensory afferent lesion affecting afferent arc
superficial reflex
elicited by tactile stimuli to skin or mucous membrane, or shining a light into pupil
cranial nerve mediated superficial reflex
typically consensual, with a bilateral response to a unilateral stimulus
abdominal reflex
stroking the skin over the abdominal quadrants causes muscle contraction and retraction of umbilicus toward the stimulus (T7-T12)
digit flexor response
pathologic reflex from an upper motor neuron lesion= rapid flexion of fingers after flicking the distal phalanx of middle finger down (Hoffman's sign) or up (Tromner's sign)
toe extensor (plantar) response
pathological reflex from an upper motor neuron lesion= slow dorsiflexion of the great toe, fanning of other toes, or both.
Babinski sign
elicited by stroking the lateral sole, from the heel to the ball of the foot, most reliable
may be normally present in an infant until supraspinal tracts have fully myelinated by age 1-2
Chaddock's sign
elicited by stroking around the lateral ankle, down the lateral side of the foot
Meningeal signs
from subarachnoid bleeding or meningitis
1.nuchal rigidity=stiffness felt when neck is passively flexed
2.Kernig's sign=resistance felt during full extension of knee with hip flexed 90 degrees
3.Brudzinski's sign=reflexive flexion of the hips and knees after the examiner passively flexes the neck
Lasegue's sign (straight leg raise maneuver)
suggestive of nerve root irritation or compression, replication of radicular pain when hip is passively flexed w/pt's knee in extension
monoparesis or monoplegia
partial weakness of one limb or total paralysis of one limb
paraparesis or paraplegia
partial weakness of both lower limbs or total paralysis of both lower limbs, typically from a thoracic spinal cord lesion
quadraparesis or quadraplegia
partial weakness of all four limbs or total paralysis of all four limbs, typically from a cervical spinal cord lesion
hemiparesis or hemiplegia
partial weakness or paralysis, respectively, of upper and lower limbs on one side. from an upper motor neuron lesion in the ipsilateral spinal cord or contralateral brain or brain stem
muscle tone
resistance felt in a limb moved passively by the examiner
increased tone, unequal between agonist and antagonist muscles, especially in antigravity muscles. due to an upper motor neuron lesion involving corticospinal tract
increased tone, equal between agnoist and antagonist muscles. due to a lesion in the extrapyramidal system
decrease in muscle tone from an afferent sensory or lower motor neuron lesion that interrupts the reflex arc of MSR, from cerebellar disease
grossly observable, spontaneous twitch of a group of muscle fibers innervated by a single lower motor neuron
spontaneous twitch of an individual muscle fiber, grossly observable only in tongue muscle
lower motor neuron signs
found in a limb that has muscles innervated by anterior horn cells affected at the level of the spinal cord lesion
upper motor neuron signs
found in a limb when a spinal cord lesion involves the corticospinal tract rostral to the anterior horn cells that innervate muscles of that limb
seen ipsilateral to spinal cord lesions because coriticospinal tract is uncrossed in spinal cord
radicular pain
lightning, stabbing, shooting pain in dermatomal distribution of dorsal root.
indicates dorsal root inflammation or compression by extramedullary lesion
transverse myelopathies
partial or complete lesion traversing one spinal cord level
a cavity (syrinx) w/in the central gray matter, which may progressively expand in any direction
subacute combined degeneration (posterolateral sclerosis)
degeneration of posterior and lateral columns, beginning in thoracic cord
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
progressive degeneration of the lateral corticospinal tracts and loss of anterior horn cells at multiple levels of the spinal cord and brain stem
motor neurons in brain and brain stem also degenerate