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23 Cards in this Set

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The neuron has specialized protein machinery.
Nissl substance is the RER of the neuron.
Hippocampal, cerebral eosinophilic granules. Signs of degenerative changes.
These Negri bodies probably mean someone was bitten by a skunk because they are seen in rabies.
These eoisinophilic granules are found in
Substantia Nigra, Pars Compacta,

or
Brainstem and Cortical
Lewy's bodies of Parkinson's disease.
Microtubules have these scaffold proteins in neurons:
Tau proteins. How are they damaged and what results?
Hyperphosphorylation of Tau proteins leaves mictubules to their own devices where they form filaments. The filaments are the infamous Neuro Fibullary Tangles.
Tau protein abnormalities cause this diseases.
Altzeimer's
Lou Gherig's
Trisomy 21

In Alzeimer's what neurons are affected?
Limbic, Cholinergic in nucleus of Meynert, and some cortical
In diabetes, there is disruption of microtubule structure by glycosylation. Which viruses would this affect?
Horse Radish Peroxidase

Herpes, Rabies, Polio. Don't forget tetnus toxins.

Which viruses affect what?
Herpes hangs out in the sensory ganglia and rabies and polio affect the skeletal muscles
How does Polio present?
Red Throat! Muscle Pains, Spasms, Respiratory Failure, Urinary retention. 95% of people are asymptomatic.
These Cholinergic Neurons in the midbrain are
Ascending arousal system.
Glutamate
1. Type
2. Synthesis
3. Cycles?
1.Excitatory
2. Glutamine
3. Astrocytes interconvert glutamine to glutamate.
What is excitotoxicity?
Ischemic stroke patients don't have the ATP to
What is th mechanism of Glutamate toxicity
cause CA flux through NMDA. The CA builds up and starts causing water to rush into the cell.
These two are the principal inhibitors
GABA and Glycine

How is it synthesized?
GABA is synthesized from Glycine
This is a motor disease. It is caused by the loss of these neurons in the basal ganglia
Parkinson's is caused by loss of Dopamine in the basal ganglia.
I am a catecholamine and am unique because I am synthesized in the synaptic vesicle. Ca can affect my levels?
Norepinephrine
Donde?
Locus ceruleus, lateral tegmentum,
Epinephrine is made from me.
Norepinephrine.
Loss of dopamine in the mesocortical regions
Negative symptom schizophrenic picture
Loss of dopamine in the mesolimbic regions
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia
Tryptophan hyroxylase is the limiting step in these reactions.
Serotonin synthesis
I am used by neurons in the hypothalamus and am similar to norepi and acetylcholine when it comes to arousal.
Histamine.
Substance P
found in cortex, basal ganglia, and hipocampus.
LTP
NMDA glutamate. long term potentiation happens here.
LTD
AMPA long term depression
Rabies
This is not lockjaw(tetanus) it causes flacid paralysis. Polio is also a flacid.
Where does curare bind
nicotenic receptor. It is not an acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor.