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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the neurons that respond directly to the stimuli called
Receptors, however if a neuron requires a specific ending like a pacinian corpuscle, the ending itself will be referred to as receptor and the neuron itself will be called sensory afferent
What is stimulus and transducer relationship
Stimulus is recognized by a receptor cell and the receptor cell then transduces that stimulus into an electrical signal
How do photoreceptors transducer a signal
They do so by retinal pathway and leading to a conformation change
How do pacinian corpuscle transducer a signal
They are physically deformed and then they activate stretch activated channel and stimulate the DRG
They action potential that’s generated by the receptors is called a
Local potential, or generator potential or receptor potential and it’s different than an action potential
How does this local potential travel
What id the mech. Of generating an action potential via a local potential
Local potential travels backwards through the axon , if it’s great enough, it’ll bring the neuron above threshold and then the neuron will launch an AP
What part of the neuron have voltage gated channels
Node of Ranvier
When the neuron extends out of the spinal chord, where does it terminate and what is located at the termination point
It terminates peripherally and it’s usually the target
How does a sensory neuron enter the spinal chord
Via dorsal root to the dorsal horn
What kind of potential is launhed at the periphery where the sensory neuron terminates
It is a local potential, there is an influx of Na+ ions but since there are no V-gated channels, there will be no action potential
What Is modality of a stimulus
Vision, hearing, touch, smell
Intensity of a stimulus
Proportional to the strength of the stimulus
Duration of a stimulus
How long it lasts
Location of a stimulus
Where it is located, like fovea for heightened visual acuity due to greater density of the photoreceptors in that region
What is our dorsal column made up of
Fascilis gracillis and cuneatus
Where does all the sensory information travel to,
Thalamus, olfactory system
What is thalamus
Relay between periphery and the cortex
What is a sensory neuron? Where are the cell bodies? Morphology? What happens with shingles?
Sensory neuron is a pseudounipolar,has 2 processes, one travels centrally and the other travels peripherally, it resides in the DRG, shingles are caused by a virus that stays dormant in the DRG and upon activation can cause damage to arms and back
4 distinct modalities are
Touch(superficial and deep), proprioception (actual displacement of muscles and the joints), pain (+ by noxious stimuli, that can cause damage) and thermal (cool and warm)
What are some of the recptors that pick up info
Mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, and nociceptors
What are mechano receptors
These respond to actual physical deformity, bending and stretching, cutaneous and deep
Respond to change in temp, hot or cold
Respond to pain
What are proprioceptors
They are mechano receptors, respond to pressure
What kind of fibers do mechanoreceptors have
Aα and Aβ
Is the skin uniform
No, it we touch the skin with a cold probe and don’t hit the neurons in the cold area, we won’t feel cold, and we would only feel touch
What kind of endings to nociceptors and thermoceptors have
Free nerve
What about mechanoceptors
They all have specialized endings
What is limb proprioception
It is sense of position and movement of the limb, also called self vs. receptor for external stimuli
What are some of the submodalities in propriception
They are stationary position and the sense of limn movement (kinesthesia), these sensations are important in controlling the limb movement and evaluating the shape of an object
Where do the axons of a-motor neurons synapse
They synapse on the extrafusal muscle fiber nad these are called the generic lower motor neurons
Where a intrafusal fibers located
They are located with in the extrafusal fibers
What nerve supply the intrafusal fibers
Goup 1a and 2 afferents
What kind of information is relayed the muscle spindles
The length of the muscle, any change in the length is conveyed to the 1A or 2 fibers
What is density of muscle spindles that supply course movemtns
Low density
What is the M. spindle density in areas that control the fine movements
High density
What kind of info is relayed by the golgi tendon organ? What kind of receptors are they? And what are they innervated by
They do muscle tension, mechanoreceptors, and 1B
1A fibers
Propriceptors, musclespindle afferent, fast
1B fibers
Golgi tendon organ, fast, muscle tension
Type 2 fibers
Aβ, meisners, merckel, muscle spindle, fast but not as fast as 1α and 1β, touch and pressure
Type 3
Aδ, some nociceptor, they do sharp pain, thermo receptor cold
Type 4
C fibers, these do dull pain, warmth temp, itch, post ganglionic autonomic fibers
What is the amplitude of the generator potential depend on
It depends on the intensity of the stimulus
What does the frequency of the action potential depend on
Amplitude of the generator potential
w/c of the following are slow and fast adopting, muscle or hair?
The muscles are slow adapting , slow or these take longer to adapt. Hair are fast and eventually adapt
Hwo do nociceptors detect pain
They respond to some of the molecules that are secreted during injury like histamine, bradykinin, and K+, along with substance P. also things like prostaglandins that act directly on the sotes of the injury
What is substance P
It is released after an injury, it leads to vasodilation and allows mast cells to move in and + them to release histamine
What determines whether a particular sensory neuron will respond to stimulus
Reactive field
What depends on reactive field
Localization depends
What is the receptive field of somatic sensory mechano receptor
It is the direct area of skin that It innervates
To feel a certain stimulus and respond to it what must happen
You must be in the receptive field
What is the receptive field of a highly innervated region
It is very small, finger tip
What is the receptive field of scarcely innervated region like you back
It is very large. Like back
What’s more sensitive an area with small receptive field or large
What is a dermatome and what’s it’s use
Is the territory that innervated by a spinal nerve, it helps in localizing the lesion
What is 2 point threshold
It is the distance that we need to travel to keep 2 stimuli apart
What happens if a stimuli hits multiple receptors
Multiple receptors will go on and be activated and send their info out to the CNS
What is the path way to through the CNS
All of the info that comes from the DRG neurons synapses in the spinal cord and from their ascends to the medulla, form their to the thalamus and then to the somatosensory cortex