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54 Cards in this Set

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What are the meninges
They are protective layers around the brain and are called dura, arachnoid, and pia
Which layer is the closest layer to the brain
w/c layer is falx cereberi and tentorium cerbelli found
They are found in dura, which is the hard layer
What structure is responsible for dividing the hemispheres
Falx cereberi, as opposed to the tentorium cerebella w/c is tent like structure
What is the unique thing about arachnoid layer
It is the spider spongy like layer where the CSF percolates over the brain surface
Where does CSF percolate
Arachnoid layer
Where are all the blood vessels located
They are in the layer just below the arachnoid layer called sub arachnoid layer
What are bridging veins
They run between subdural space and super sagiettal space and can cause subdural hematoma
w/c layer is juxtaposed to the brain and sticks to it closely
Where is epidural space
Between skull and the dura
Where is subdural space
Between arachnoid and dura
Where Is the subarachnoid space
It’s between arachnoid and pia
What’s significant about this space
CSF percolates here and all the major vessels run through here
How are hematomas formed?
Brain is encased, so any trauma to the head can lead to bleeding i.e. hematoma
What happens if the meningeal artery is ligated
It will usually lead to epidural hematoma b/c meningeal artery run along epidural space
What happen if the bridging vein are ligated
Subdural hematoma, b/s briding veins run between subdural hematoma and super sagiettal space
What does epidural hematoma look like on CT scan
It is a biconvex lens shaped, quick, bleeds a lot, and usually seems darker, it has tight flow b/s that’s where the dura attaches very strongly to the brain
What does subdural hematoma look like
It looks rather crescent shaped, this will bleed more freely b/c the bridging vein will dissect the area freely
What are space occupying injuries of the brain
Tumor, hemorrhage, edema, hematoma
What do space occupying lesion cause
They can increase the pressure in the cranial vault, they can push up on some of the surrounding neural structures, and they can push these structure to one side away fron their original location= hernia
What is uncal herniation
It happesn when the nedial temporal lobe herniates, this pushes on the uncus in the midbrain, w.c in turn pushes on the CN3, leading to symptoms of fixed pupil and papillary dilation
What is another thing that uncal herniation can cause
It can push on the reticular formation and that could lead to coma
During developmental level, where to we see lateral ventricles
At telencephalon
During developmental level, where to we see 3rd ventricles
At the diencephalon
What ventricle do we see at the level of mesencephalon
None, only cerebral aqueduct
What level do we see fourth ventricles
At rhombencephalon
What are the most anterior and largest ventricles
How do lateral ventricles join the inferior temporal horns
By attaching to the atrium
How does one go from lateral ventricles to the third ventricles
Via foramen of Monroe
How does the 3rd connect to the fourth
Via cerebral aqueduct
Whats another name for the aqueduct of sylvius
It is called cerebral aqueduct
What structures make up the wall of 3rd ventricle
Thalamus and hypothalamus
How does CSF exit the fourth ventricles
It leaves by 2 lateral opening called foramen Lushka and 1 central opening called foramen of magendie
What cells make and secrete CSF
Choroid epithelial cells
What cells line the ventricles
Epindymal cells
Where is choroid plexus found
Tucked w/in the ventricles and is made up fucion of vascular epindymal cells that line the sides of the ventricles
What is ionic make up of CSF
↑ In Mg and Cl, ↓ in K
Why is it necessary to know the make up of CSF
b/c it can predict disease, for example meningitis is caused by bacteria and viruses, the bacterial is dangerous and treated differently, so in bacterial there is no glucose but in viral the glucose concentration of the CSF is normal
What happens to CSF once it leaves the 4th ventricle
It moves in to the cisterns, then it percolates over the hemispheres, and then finally exits via arachnoid villus and finally moves into the subarachnoid space in the spinal chord
What are cisterns
They are widened parts of the subarachnoid space, the CSF flows through them
What is the significance of lumbar cistern
That’s where we do a spinal tap and sample CSF
What structure is responsible for draining the CSF
Arachnoid villus
What happens if CSF is not drained properly or if flow is obstructed
What are the reason for hydrocephalus
Too nuch CSF (papillary tumor + the choroid plexus), or poor drainage or obstruction of CSF at a certain location causing it to pool
What is the most common cause of hydrocephalus
Obstruction of flow due to tumors blocking the passage through the ventricles or congenital defects where the opening to the ventricle doesn’t form
What is a communicating hydrocephalus
Ventricles can communicate but the obstruction is in subarachnoid space or arachnoid granulations not absorbing CSF
What is a non-communicating hydrocephalus
Something is blocking the foramina of the ventricles, this is seen with dandy-walker syndrome, where the exit foramina don’t develop properly or ventricular enlargement
What is the blood brain barrier
It formed by formation of the tight junction b/t endothelial cells of the brain capillary, exclusively, it is not present systemically anywhere else
What id function of BBB
It prevent the flow of substance into the brain, it helps minimize infection to the brain
What causes the formation of the tight junction
Pedicles of astrocytes
Is their another barrier in the brain
Yes, it exists between the choroid plexus and CSF, it (X) flow of materials into the CSF and help CSF stay with epindymal cells
If access to brain is so tightly contolled then how does one get drugs to the brain
Via circumventicluar organs, these are the area where BBB doesn’t exist
Where are these circumventricles located and what are there functions
1)Area pstrema=located at the caudal wall of the 4th ventricle, in the medulla, detects toxins that can cause vomiting
2)median eminence and neurohyphysis w/c regulates ands secretes pituitary hormone
3)pineal gland=release melatonin w/c regulates our circaidian rhythm